UpToDate for Resource-Limited Settings

Topics that have been created or updated for use by clinicians in resource-limited settings are listed below. UpToDate® subscribers can access these topics by copying and pasting the topic name into the Search box after logging in.

  • Acute rheumatic fever: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
  • Acute rheumatic fever: Epidemiology and pathogenesis
  • Acute rheumatic fever: Treatment and prevention
  • Adherence to tuberculosis treatment
  • Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries
  • AIDS-related cytomegalovirus gastrointestinal disease
  • AIDS-related cytomegalovirus neurologic disease
  • Anthelminthic therapies
  • Antimalarial drugs: An overview
  • Antiprotozoal therapies
  • Approach to HIV-infected patients with central nervous system lesions
  • Approach to stool microscopy
  • Approach to the adult with acute diarrhea in resource-limited countries
  • Approach to the child with acute diarrhea in resource-limited countries
  • Approach to the HIV-infected patient with pulmonary symptoms
  • Approach to the patient with genital ulcers
  • Approaches to reduction of maternal mortality in resource-limited settings
  • Arthropod-borne encephalitides
  • Ascariasis
  • Avian influenza A H7N9: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis
  • Avian influenza A H7N9: Treatment and prevention
  • Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and diagnosis
  • Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Treatment and prognosis
  • Bacterial meningitis in children: Dexamethasone and other measures to prevent neurologic complications
  • Bacterial meningitis in children: Neurologic complications
  • Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: Clinical features and diagnosis
  • Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: Neurologic complications
  • Bacterial meningitis in the neonate: Treatment and outcome
  • Balantidium coli infection
  • BCG vaccination
  • Blastocystis species
  • Botryomycosis
  • Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection)
  • Cardiac and vascular disease in HIV-infected patients
  • Central nervous system tuberculosis
  • Chagas disease: Antitrypanosomal drug therapy
  • Chagas disease: Epidemiology and control
  • Chagas disease: Management of acute disease, early chronic disease, and disease in immunocompromised hosts
  • Chagas disease: Natural history and diagnosis
  • Chagas gastrointestinal disease
  • Chagas heart disease: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
  • Chagas heart disease: Treatment and prognosis
  • Chancroid
  • Chikungunya fever
  • Clinical features and diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults
  • Clinical management and monitoring during antifungal therapy of the HIV-infected patient with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis
  • Clinical management of patients with Cystoisospora infection
  • Clinical manifestations and complications of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute/subacute paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of anthrax
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of avian influenza
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in HIV-seronegative patients
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of cysticercosis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of dengue virus infection
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of echinococcosis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of enterovirus and parechovirus infections
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of HIV-2 infection
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of measles
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of rabies
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
  • Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Yersinia infections
  • Clinical manifestations of malaria in nonpregnant adults and children
  • Clinical manifestations of meningococcal infection
  • Clinical manifestations of seasonal influenza in adults
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of African trypanosomiasis
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of brucellosis
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Campylobacter infection
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of diphtheria
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of miliary tuberculosis
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of plague (Yersinia pestis infection)
  • Clinical microbiology review: Blood and tissue parasites
  • Clinical presentation and diagnosis of Pneumocystis pulmonary infection in HIV-infected patients
  • Coccidioidomycosis in compromised hosts
  • Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: Risk stratification and the decision to admit
  • Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis
  • Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment
  • Considerations prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Crush-related acute kidney injury
  • Cryptococcus gattii infection: Clinical features and diagnosis
  • Cryptococcus gattii infection: Microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis
  • Cryptococcus gattii infection: Treatment
  • Cryptococcus neoformans infection outside the central nervous system
  • Cyclospora infection
  • Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in non-HIV-infected patients
  • Diagnosis and treatment of Penicillium (Talaromyces) marneffei infection
  • Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary histoplasmosis
  • Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (tuberculosis screening) in HIV-infected patients
  • Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (tuberculosis screening) in HIV-uninfected adults
  • Diagnosis of malaria
  • Diagnosis of meningococcal infection
  • Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-uninfected patients
  • Diagnosis of schistosomiasis
  • Diagnosis of seasonal influenza in adults
  • Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis
  • Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of drug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Diagnostic approach to community-acquired pneumonia in adults
  • Diagnostic testing for syphilis
  • Dientamoeba fragilis
  • Differential diagnosis of microbial foodborne disease
  • Disease associations of human herpesvirus 8 infection
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to Central Africa
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to East Africa
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to East Asia
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to North Africa
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to South Asia
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to Southeast Asia
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to Southern Africa
  • Diseases potentially acquired by travel to West Africa
  • Endomyocardial fibrosis
  • Enterobiasis (pinworm) and trichuriasis (whipworm)
  • Eosinophilic meningitis
  • Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients
  • Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Penicillium (Talaromyces) marneffei infection
  • Epidemiology and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis
  • Epidemiology and control of visceral leishmaniasis
  • Epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of drug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease
  • Epidemiology and pathology of miliary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  • Epidemiology and transmission of measles
  • Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in adults
  • Epidemiology of dengue virus infections
  • Epidemiology of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Epidemiology of influenza
  • Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis infection
  • Epidemiology of tuberculosis
  • Epidemiology of yersiniosis
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Cystoisospora infections
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of giardiasis
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of hepatitis B in the HIV-infected patient
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of melioidosis
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients
  • Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of syphilis in the HIV-infected patient
  • Epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis of plague (Yersinia pestis infection)
  • Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of leprosy
  • Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of leptospirosis
  • Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of typhoid fever
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of HIV-associated neuropathies
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and prevention of African trypanosomiasis
  • Epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of enterovirus and parechovirus infections
  • Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of syphilis in HIV-uninfected patients
  • Epidemiology, transmission and prevention of cysticercosis
  • Epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis of avian influenza
  • Epidemiology, transmission, natural history, and pathogenesis of HIV-2 infection
  • Ethambutol: An overview
  • Etiology and treatment of calcipenic rickets in children
  • Eumycetoma
  • Evaluation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the HIV-infected patient
  • Evaluation of diarrhea in children
  • Evaluation of fever in the returning traveler
  • Extraintestinal Entamoeba histolytica amebiasis
  • Free-living amebas
  • Global epidemiology of HIV infection
  • Global poliomyelitis eradication
  • Healthcare for adult immigrants and refugees
  • Hepatitis A virus vaccination and postexposure prophylaxis
  • Hepatitis B virus immunization in infants, children, and adolescents
  • Hepatitis viruses and the newborn: Clinical manifestations and treatment
  • HIV and malaria
  • HIV drug resistance testing in resource-limited settings
  • HIV infection: Risk factors and prevention strategies
  • Hookworm infection
  • Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Disease associations, diagnosis, and treatment
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology
  • Hypogonadism in HIV-infected males
  • Immunizations for travel
  • Immunology of tuberculosis
  • Infection with less common Campylobacter species and related bacteria
  • Initial management of shock in children
  • Initial therapy and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in adults
  • Interferon-gamma release assays for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection
  • Intestinal Entamoeba histolytica amebiasis
  • Intestinal flukes
  • Intestinal tapeworms
  • Iron deficiency in infants and young children: Screening, prevention, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis
  • Iron deficiency in infants and young children: Treatment
  • Isoniazid hepatotoxicity
  • Isoniazid: An overview
  • Japanese encephalitis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
  • Jellyfish stings
  • Laboratory monitoring of patients undergoing treatment for syphilis
  • Latent tuberculosis infection in children
  • Liver flukes: Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, and Metorchis
  • Liver flukes: Fascioliasis
  • Loiasis (Loa loa infection)
  • Lymphangitis
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Malaria in endemic areas: Epidemiology, prevention, and control
  • Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries: Clinical assessment
  • Management of multiple myeloma in resource-poor settings
  • Mansonella infections
  • Marburg virus
  • Mass drug administration for control of parasitic infections
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella immunization in adults
  • Meningococcal vaccines
  • Mesoamerican nephropathy
  • Microbiology and epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans infection
  • Microbiology and pathobiology of Neisseria meningitidis
  • Microbiology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis
  • Microbiology and pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae infection
  • Microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of Brucella
  • Microbiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of anthrax
  • Microbiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of Campylobacter infection
  • Microbiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and prevention of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)
  • Micronutrient deficiencies associated with malnutrition in children
  • Microsporidiosis
  • Miscellaneous nematodes
  • Monitoring the HIV-infected patient on antituberculous medications
  • Monitoring the HIV-infected patient with chronic hepatitis B virus infection
  • Mosquito vectors of infectious diseases
  • Mumps virus vaccine
  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Mycology and epidemiology of paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Natural history, screening, and management of rheumatic heart disease
  • Neurologic complications of bacterial meningitis in adults
  • Nipah and Hendra viral encephalitis
  • Noma (cancrum oris)
  • Nonpathogenic enteric protozoa
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella: Gastrointestinal infection and carriage
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella: Microbiology and epidemiology
  • Obstetric fistulas in resource-limited settings
  • Onchocerciasis
  • Overview of cholera
  • Overview of hepatitis A virus infection in adults
  • Overview of hepatitis A virus infection in children
  • Overview of hepatitis A virus infection in children
  • Overview of hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents
  • Overview of malaria in pregnancy
  • Overview of non-falciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children
  • Overview of prevention of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients
  • Overview of rickets in children
  • Overview of trachoma
  • Paragonimiasis
  • Parasitic pulmonary infections in HIV-infected patients
  • Pathogenesis and clinical features of pulmonary histoplasmosis
  • Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis
  • Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis
  • Pathogenesis of dengue virus infection
  • Pathogenesis of malaria
  • Pathogenesis of Salmonella gastroenteritis
  • Pathogenesis of typhoid fever
  • Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis
  • Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of brain abscess
  • Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of early syphilis
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli
  • Pediatric HIV infection: Classification, clinical manifestations, and outcome
  • Persistent diarrhea in children in resource-limited countries
  • Pneumococcal meningitis in children
  • Pneumonia in children: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and etiology
  • Pneumonia in children: Inpatient treatment
  • Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn
  • Poliovirus vaccination
  • Post-polio syndrome
  • Potential health hazards in travelers to Australia, New Zealand, and the southwestern Pacific (Oceania)
  • Pregnancy-related group A streptococcal infection
  • Prevention and treatment of dengue virus infection
  • Prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnant women
  • Prevention and treatment of measles
  • Prevention of anthrax
  • Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in the HIV-infected adult
  • Prevention of HIV transmission during breastfeeding in resource-limited settings
  • Prevention of malaria infection in travelers
  • Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings
  • Prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
  • Psoas abscess
  • Pulmonary manifestations of ascariasis
  • Pyomyositis
  • Pyrazinamide: An overview
  • Rabies immune globulin and vaccine
  • Renal disease in tuberculosis
  • Rifamycins (rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine)
  • Ross River virus infection
  • Rubella
  • Rubella in pregnancy
  • Safety and dosing of antiretroviral medications in pregnancy
  • Sarcocystosis
  • Screening for cervical cancer in resource-limited settings
  • Seasonal influenza in children: Clinical features and diagnosis
  • Seasonal influenza in children: Prevention and treatment with antiviral drugs
  • Second-line antituberculous therapy
  • Septic shock: Rapid recognition and initial resuscitation in children
  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus
  • Severe malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries: Treatment
  • Shigella infection: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
  • Shigella infection: Epidemiology, microbiology, and pathogenesis
  • Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in adults
  • Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in children
  • Sickle cell disease in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Skeletal tuberculosis
  • Skin lesions in the returning traveler
  • Snakebites worldwide: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
  • South American bartonellosis: Oroya fever and verruga peruana
  • Strongyloidiasis
  • Syphilis: Treatment and monitoring
  • Tetanus
  • The impact of antiretroviral therapy on morbidity and mortality of HIV infection in resource-limited settings
  • Thyroid gland dysfunction in HIV-infected patients
  • Toxocariasis: Visceral and ocular larva migrans
  • Toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients
  • Travel advice
  • Travel advice for immunocompromised hosts
  • Travelers' diarrhea: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
  • Travelers' diarrhea: Microbiology, epidemiology, and prevention
  • Treatment and prevention of avian influenza
  • Treatment and prevention of cryptosporidiosis
  • Treatment and prevention of Ebola virus disease
  • Treatment and prevention of giardiasis
  • Treatment and prevention of leprosy
  • Treatment and prevention of leptospirosis
  • Treatment and prevention of meningococcal infection
  • Treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis infection in HIV-infected patients
  • Treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis
  • Treatment and prevention of typhoid fever
  • Treatment and prognosis of bacterial brain abscess
  • Treatment and prognosis of melioidosis
  • Treatment of AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis
  • Treatment of anthrax
  • Treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by specific pathogens in adults
  • Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in the outpatient setting
  • Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization
  • Treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis and disseminated infection in HIV seronegative patients
  • Treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients
  • Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Treatment of cysticercosis
  • Treatment of echinococcosis
  • Treatment of HIV-2 infection
  • Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected adults
  • Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-uninfected adults
  • Treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults
  • Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-uninfected adults
  • Treatment of rabies
  • Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults
  • Treatment of severe malaria
  • Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children
  • Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
  • Trichinellosis
  • Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
  • Tuberculosis and the eye
  • Tuberculosis disease in children
  • Tuberculosis in pregnancy
  • Tuberculosis transmission and control
  • Tuberculous enteritis
  • Tuberculous lymphadenitis
  • Tuberculous pericarditis
  • Tuberculous pleural effusions in HIV-infected patients
  • Tuberculous pleural effusions in HIV-uninfected patients
  • Unsafe abortion
  • Use of peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure)
  • Viral meningitis: Clinical features and diagnosis in children
  • Viral meningitis: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and etiology in children
  • Viral meningitis: Management, prognosis, and prevention in children
  • Virology, epidemiology, and transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection
  • When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients
  • When to use rabies prophylaxis
  • Whipple's disease
  • Yaws, bejel, and pinta
  • Yellow fever
  • Zika virus infection
  • Zinc deficiency and supplementation in children and adolescents