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Venous malformations

Laurence M Boon, MD, PhD
Miikka Vikkula, MD, PhD
Emmanuel Seront, MD, PhD
Section Editor
Moise L Levy, MD
Deputy Editor
Rosamaria Corona, MD, DSc


Venous malformations (VMs) are the most frequent slow-flow vascular malformations seen in specialized multidisciplinary centers for vascular anomalies [1]. They result from inborn errors in the development of the venous network, leading to dilated and dysfunctional veins that are deficient in smooth muscle cells. Although inherited forms exist, more than 90 percent of VMs occur sporadically. VMs are present at birth and grow proportionally with the child but may become clinically evident later in life. Depending on their location and extension, symptoms are highly variable and include pain, bleeding, disfigurement, and functional impairment, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality.

This topic will review the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of venous malformations. Other congenital vascular anomalies and vascular tumors are discussed separately.

(See "Vascular lesions in the newborn".)

(See "Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management".)

(See "Capillary malformations (port wine stains) and associated syndromes".)


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Literature review current through: May 2017. | This topic last updated: May 22, 2017.
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