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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 19

of 'Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factors in adult patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and conditions other than acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hematopoietic cell transplantation'

Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pui CH, Boyett JM, Hughes WT, Rivera GK, Hancock ML, Sandlund JT, Synold T, Relling MV, Ribeiro RC, Crist WM, Evans WE
N Engl J Med. 1997;336(25):1781.
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor PO1 CA-20180ilgrastim) hastens the recovery from neutropenia after P30 CA-21765emotherapy, but its role in the management of childhood leukemia is unclear.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 164 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (age range, 2 months to 17 years) to receive placebo or G-CSF (10 microg per kilogram of body weight per day subcutaneously), beginning one day after the completion of remission-induction therapy and continuing until the neutrophil count was greater than or equal to 1000 per cubic millimeter for two days. The clinical and laboratory effects of this therapy were documented for 21 days. The area under the plasma G-CSF concentration-time curve was measured on days 1 and 7 in both groups.
RESULTS: Responses to the growth factor could be assessed in 148 patients (73 in the G-CSF group and 75 in the placebo group). G-CSF treatment did not significantly lower the rate of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia (58 percent inthe G-CSF group vs. 68 percent in the placebo group; relative risk, 0.85; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.16), increase the likelihood of event-free survival at three years (83 percent in both groups), or decrease the number of severe infections (five in the G-CSF group vs. six in the placebo group). Patients treated with G-CSF had shorter median hospital stays (6 days vs. 10 days, P=0.011) and fewer documented infections (12 vs. 27, P=0.009). The median total costs of supportive care were similar in the G-CSF and placebo groups ($8,768 and $8,616, respectively). Among patients who did not have febrile neutropenia during the first week of G-CSF or placebo injections, higher systemic exposure to the growth factor on day 7 was significantly related to a lower probability of subsequent hospitalization (P=0.049).
CONCLUSIONS: G-CSF treatment had some clinical benefit in children who received induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but it did not reduce the rate of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia, prolong survival, or reduce the cost of supportive care.
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and the University of Tennessee, Memphis, Colleges of Medicine, 38105-0318, USA.