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Treatment of lung infection with Mycobacterium kansasii and other less common nontuberculous mycobacteria in adults

Authors
Charles L Daley, MD
Shannon Kasperbauer, MD
Section Editor
C Fordham von Reyn, MD
Deputy Editor
Allyson Bloom, MD

INTRODUCTION

Treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection of the lung is dependent upon a number of factors, including the species of the infecting organism. Depending on the geographic area, the most common slow growing NTM to cause lung disease are Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium malmoense, and Mycobacterium xenopi [1-3].

The treatment of lung infections due to M. kansasii and other non-MAC slow growing nontuberculous mycobacteria will be reviewed here. Management of pulmonary infections due to MAC and to rapidly growing mycobacterium (Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and Mycobacterium chelonae) are discussed separately. (See "Treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung infection in adults" and "Rapidly growing mycobacterial infections: Mycobacteria abscessus, chelonae, and fortuitum".)

The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of NTM infection are discussed elsewhere. (See "Overview of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in HIV-negative patients" and "Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections" and "Diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections of the lungs in HIV-negative patients".)

M. KANSASII

M. kansasii was first described by Buhler and Pollack in 1953 as a cause of progressive lung disease [4]. In the United States, M. kansasii is the second most common slow growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing pulmonary disease.

Rationale for treatment — Antimycobacterial treatment is indicated for most patients diagnosed with M. kansasii lung disease because untreated M. kansasii usually leads to chronic progressive lung disease [5]. Furthermore, outcomes are generally good with treatment of M. kansasii, with rare treatment failures and uncommon relapse. Thus, the benefits of treatment outweigh potential risks in most individuals.

                        

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Literature review current through: Jun 2017. | This topic last updated: Mar 16, 2017.
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