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Treatment of exogenous endophthalmitis due to Candida species

Carol A Kauffman, MD
Marlene L Durand, MD
Section Editors
Kieren A Marr, MD
Jonathan Trobe, MD
Deputy Editor
Anna R Thorner, MD


Candida species are a common cause of fungal endophthalmitis. This infection arises in two discrete ways:

The exogenous form follows trauma, eye surgery, or progression of fungal keratitis (corneal infection). Fungi are directly inoculated into the aqueous and/or vitreous.

The endogenous form follows candidemia, with hematogenous seeding of the eye. Fungi usually first seed the highly vascular choroid, then infection typically progresses through the retina into the vitreous. The aqueous is sometimes involved as well. (See "Treatment of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Candida species".)

The treatment of exogenous endophthalmitis caused by Candida species will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis are discussed separately. The treatment of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Candida species and endophthalmitis due to molds are also presented separately. Bacterial endophthalmitis and Fusarium keratitis as well as candidemia and other types of Candida infection are also discussed separately. (See "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis" and "Treatment of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Candida species" and "Treatment of endophthalmitis due to molds" and "Bacterial endophthalmitis" and "Treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults" and "Overview of Candida infections" and "Treatment and prevention of Fusarium infection".)


The term "endophthalmitis" refers to infection within the eye involving the vitreous and/or aqueous (figure 1). Exogenous endophthalmitis signifies that the infection was introduced into the eye from the "outside," either by trauma, eye surgery, or extension of corneal infection (keratitis).

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Jan 28, 2016.
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