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INTRODUCTION — The term candidemia describes the presence of Candida species in the blood. Candidemia is the most common manifestations of invasive candidiasis. Candida in a blood culture should never be viewed as a contaminant and should always prompt a search for the source of the bloodstream infection. For many patients, candidemia is a manifestation of invasive candidiasis that could have originated in a variety of organs, whereas, for others, candidemia originated from an infected indwelling intravenous catheter .
The treatment of candidemia in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of candidemia are discussed separately; an overview of Candida infections and the management of other forms of invasive candidiasis are also presented elsewhere. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults" and "Overview of Candida infections" and "Candida endocarditis and suppurative thrombophlebitis" and "Chronic disseminated candidiasis (hepatosplenic candidiasis)" and "Candida infections of the central nervous system" and "Candida osteoarticular infections".)
The treatment of candidemia in neonates and children is discussed in detail separately. (See "Treatment of Candida infection in neonates" and "Candidemia and invasive candidiasis in children: Management".)
Antifungal susceptibility testing is also reviewed separately. (See "Antifungal susceptibility testing".)
EPIDEMIOLOGY — C. albicans is the most common cause of candidemia, but there has been increased isolation of non-albicans species of Candida in recent years. Most prominent have been C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, followed by C. tropicalis and C. krusei. This is important because some C. glabrata isolates are resistant to fluconazole, and all C. krusei isolates are resistant to fluconazole. In addition, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for C. parapsilosis with the echinocandins are higher than for other Candida species. Risk factors for infection with fluconazole-resistant Candida species include neutropenia, recent azole use, and others. The risk factors for and epidemiology of candidemia are discussed in detail separately. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults", section on 'Prevalence of Candida species'.)
APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT — The most common antifungal agents used for the treatment of candidemia are the echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) and fluconazole. Formulations of amphotericin B are given less often due to the risk of toxicity. Both the echinocandins and the azoles are better tolerated than amphotericin B formulations .
In all cases, candidemia requires treatment with an antifungal agent ; it should never be assumed that removal of a catheter alone is adequate therapy for candidemia. Several studies have noted the high mortality rates associated with candidemia [4-6] and have shown that mortality is highest in those patients who were not treated with an antifungal drug [5,6]. Furthermore, prompt initiation of therapy is crucial. (See 'Central venous catheter removal' below and 'Outcomes' below.)
Choice of initial agent
The doses of the echinocandins are:
•Anidulafungin: 200 mg loading dose, then 100 mg daily intravenously (IV)
•Caspofungin: 70 mg loading dose, then 50 mg daily IV
•Micafungin: 100 mg daily IV
●Fluconazole (800 mg [12 mg/kg] loading dose, then 400 mg [6 mg/kg] orally or IV daily) can be used as an alternative agent in patients who are not critically ill and who are unlikely to have a fluconazole-resistant organism, such as C. glabrata or C. krusei. Since fluconazole is highly bioavailable, oral therapy is appropriate for most patients. IV therapy (at the same dose) should be given to patients who are unable to take oral medications, who are not expected to have good gastrointestinal absorption, or who are severely ill.
●Lipid formulation amphotericin B (3 to 5 mg/kg IV daily) is an alternative if there is intolerance, limited availability, or resistance to other antifungal agents.
●An alternative is a lipid formulation of amphotericin B (3 to 5 mg/kg daily), but this regimen has more toxicity (table 1).
●Fluconazole (800 mg [12 mg/kg] loading dose, then 400 mg [6 mg/kg] orally or IV daily) should be restricted to clinically stable patients who have not had prior azole exposure. Since fluconazole is highly bioavailable, oral therapy is appropriate for most patients. IV therapy (at the same dose) should be given to patients who are unable to take oral medications, who are not expected to have good gastrointestinal absorption, or who are severely ill. (See 'Echinocandins' below and 'Azoles' below and 'Amphotericin B' below.)
C. glabrata and C. krusei
●An echinocandin is preferred over amphotericin B for treatment of candidemia due to C. glabrata and C. krusei. Voriconazole is approved for this indication, but there is likely to be cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole among C. glabrata isolates. This cross-resistance does not occur with C. krusei. (See 'Echinocandins' below.)
●Some studies have shown increased rates of echinocandin resistance among C. glabrata bloodstream isolates. Resistance should be suspected in patients who have received echinocandins in the recent past and in patients who develop candidemia while receiving an echinocandin for prophylaxis or empiric therapy (eg, for neutropenic fever); in these situations, an amphotericin B formulation should be used until antifungal susceptibility testing results are available. (See 'C. glabrata' below.)
●Candida krusei is usually susceptible to echinocandins and voriconazole but is uniformly resistant to fluconazole. These isolates can also demonstrate high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to amphotericin B, and, for this reason, higher doses of this drug should be used for C. krusei infection (5 mg/kg daily of lipid-based formulations). (See 'Amphotericin B' below.)
C. auris — In 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Public Health England issued warnings about the emergence of a multidrug-resistant Candida species, C. auris [7-9]. This pathogen has caused invasive healthcare-associated infections in multiple countries on several continents, and it has been associated with high mortality rates. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults", section on 'Emergence of C. auris'.)
It is important to note that C. auris is often resistant to agents from other antifungal classes, particularly azoles. (See 'C. auris' below.)
Because C. auris can develop resistance quickly, patients receiving antifungal therapy should be monitored carefully with follow-up cultures . Both recurrent and persistent C. auris bloodstream infections have occurred. If the patient does not respond clinically to an echinocandin or has persistent candidemia for >5 days, the patient can be switched to a lipid formulation of amphotericin B 5 mg/kg IV daily.
If C. auris cultured from a noninvasive site and there is no evidence of infection, treatment is not indicated .
Given concerns about resistance and transmission of C. auris in healthcare facilities, there are special infection control precautions for patients who are colonized or infected with C. auris. (See 'Infection control precautions for C. auris' below.)
Oral step-down therapy — Nonneutropenic and neutropenic patients who are clinically stable, who have Candida isolates that are susceptible to fluconazole, and who have negative repeat blood cultures can be transitioned to oral fluconazole after five to seven days .
For most Candida species, fluconazole should be given at a dose of 400 mg (6 mg/kg) orally once daily for step-down therapy . For C. glabrata infection, higher-dose fluconazole 800 mg (12 mg/kg) orally daily or voriconazole 200 to 300 mg (3 to 4 mg/kg) orally twice daily should be used for patients with fluconazole-susceptible or voriconazole-susceptible isolates. Voriconazole is recommended as oral step-down therapy for patients with C. krusei, as this species is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole. For other Candida isolates, voriconazole does not offer a clear advantage compared with fluconazole.
Duration — The appropriate duration of therapy for candidemia has not been studied. For patients without metastatic complications, a minimum of two weeks of therapy after blood cultures become negative has been used in most clinical trials and is the recommended duration in the 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines . Blood cultures should be performed daily or every other day after initiating therapy in order to determine the date of sterilization. If blood cultures remain positive, then a search for a metastatic focus, such as an abscess or endocarditis, must be undertaken. In addition, all patients should have resolution of symptoms attributable to candidemia and resolution of neutropenia (eg, absolute neutrophil count >500 cells/microL and a consistent increasing trend) before antifungal therapy is discontinued . (See "Overview of neutropenic fever syndromes", section on 'Neutropenia' and "Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)", section on 'Duration'.)
A longer duration of therapy and consultation with an infectious disease specialist are warranted in patients who have metastatic foci of infection, such as endophthalmitis or endocarditis. (See "Treatment of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Candida species" and "Candida osteoarticular infections" and "Candida endocarditis and suppurative thrombophlebitis" and "Chronic disseminated candidiasis (hepatosplenic candidiasis)".)
Combination therapy — Whether more than one antifungal agent should be used together for the treatment of candidemia has not been established, although combination therapy is generally not given for the treatment of candidemia.
In one trial, 219 nonneutropenic patients with candidemia were randomly assigned to fluconazole (800 mg/day) alone for two weeks or fluconazole (800 mg/day) plus amphotericin B (0.7 mg/kg per day) for the first four to seven days followed by fluconazole alone to finish the two-week course . There was more rapid clearing of fungemia with initial combination therapy, but the overall success rates were similar in the two groups.
Antifungal agents — Therapeutic antifungal classes for the treatment of candidiasis include the polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins [3,12]. The relative advantages and disadvantages of available agents are discussed in this section.
Several randomized trials have shown that fluconazole is as effective as amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in immunocompetent patients [13-16]. The echinocandins appear to be as effective as and better tolerated than amphotericin B formulations and, in one study, more effective than fluconazole [17-20]. The majority of patients in these studies were not neutropenic.
A 2008 meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials compared different antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and found that there were no differences in mortality between fluconazole and either amphotericin B or the echinocandins . However, there was a higher rate of microbiologic failure in patients who received fluconazole compared with either amphotericin B (relative risk [RR] 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.07) or the echinocandin anidulafungin (RR 2.0; 95% CI 1.16-3.44).
A 2012 patient-level quantitative review evaluated observational data gathered from 1915 patients included in seven randomized treatment trials of candidemia and invasive candidiasis, including those described above . Patients who were treated with an echinocandin had improved survival compared with those treated with an azole or an amphotericin B formulation (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.94).
Data are more limited in neutropenic patients with candidemia. No randomized trials have been adequately powered to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients , and data are derived from small subset analyses of randomized trials, open-label studies, and retrospective studies [15,17,18,22-24]. Based upon the widespread use of fluconazole prophylaxis in neutropenic patients and the resulting increased prevalence of non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, most neutropenic patients with candidemia are treated with an echinocandin or an amphotericin B formulation. (See 'Neutropenic patients' above.)
Echinocandins — The echinocandins include caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin. Echinocandins are noncompetitive inhibitors of the synthesis of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, which is an integral component of the fungal cell wall . They are cidal for most Candida species, have favorable toxicity profiles, and are approved for the treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. The echinocandins are preferred over azoles for the initial treatment of candidemia if C. glabrata or C. krusei is identified or suspected or if the patient has been previously treated with an azole agent .
Due to their broad-spectrum activity against Candida species, the echinocandins are used extensively for candidemia and invasive candidiasis. The highest echinocandin MICs are found for C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Resistance to echinocandins has been noted in only a few individual cases until recently. However, acquired resistance has been increasingly reported, especially in C. glabrata. The mechanism of echinocandin resistance is similar in all species and involves mutations in the FKS1 or FKS2 genes that control the enzyme targeted by the echinocandins. When an isolate demonstrates resistance to one echinocandin with acquired mutations in FKS gene "hot spots," it is typically resistant to the entire class; however, exceptions to this rule have been reported, specifically in C. kefyr isolates .
The echinocandins are administered intravenously as follows:
●Caspofungin is given at an initial dose of 70 mg on the first day of treatment, followed by 50 mg daily; dose reduction is required with hepatic dysfunction.
●Anidulafungin is given at an initial dose of 200 mg on the first day, followed by 100 mg daily.
●Micafungin is given at a dose of 100 mg daily for candidemia; no loading dose is needed.
Adverse effects of all echinocandins are generally mild and include fever, thrombophlebitis, headache, and elevated aminotransferases . The pharmacology of the echinocandins is discussed in detail separately. (See "Pharmacology of echinocandins".)
Several randomized trials have compared the efficacy of echinocandins with either an amphotericin B formulation or fluconazole among patients with invasive candidiasis [17-20]. The majority of patients had candidemia and were not neutropenic.
The echinocandins appear to be as effective as and better tolerated than amphotericin B formulations and, in one study, more effective than fluconazole, as illustrated by the following observations:
●In one randomized trial, caspofungin was shown to be equivalent in efficacy to amphotericin B . Patients were randomly assigned to the two different treatment arms controlling for neutropenia and APACHE II scores. In an analysis that excluded patients who did not have a documented infection or received less than one day of the treatment drug, the two drugs demonstrated equivalent efficacy (73 percent for caspofungin versus 62 percent for amphotericin B). Caspofungin was associated with less toxicity.
●A randomized multinational noninferiority trial compared micafungin with liposomal amphotericin B . In a modified intent-to-treat analysis, success rates for clinical and microbiologic cure were similar (74 and 70 percent for micafungin and liposomal amphotericin B, respectively). Micafungin was associated with fewer adverse events. In a later subset analysis of only those patients who had infection with C. glabrata or C. krusei, outcomes were similar between those receiving micafungin and those receiving liposomal amphotericin B .
●In another randomized trial, anidulafungin resulted in superior combined clinical and microbiologic response compared with fluconazole (65 versus 49 percent at two-week follow-up), although 60-day mortality rates were similar, as discussed above . (See 'Azoles' below.)
Data are more limited in neutropenic patients with candidemia compared with nonneutropenic patients. Efficacy data for the echinocandins in neutropenic patients comes from small subset analyses of randomized trials and open-label studies [17,18,22,23]. Although the efficacy of the echinocandins in neutropenic patients cannot be firmly established based upon these studies, the response rates to the echinocandins appear to be similar to or better than formulations of amphotericin B.
A separate issue is the relative efficacy of the different echinocandins. This was addressed in a randomized trial of adults with candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis that compared two doses of micafungin (100 mg or 150 mg daily) with one another and with caspofungin (70 mg once followed by 50 mg daily) . The lower dose of micafungin was equivalent to both the higher dose of micafungin and to caspofungin.
In a later subset analysis of only those patients who had infection with C. glabrata or C. krusei, outcomes were similar among the three treatment groups . In another trial, two different doses of caspofungin (70 mg once followed by 50 mg daily versus 150 mg daily) were compared in patients being treated for invasive candidiasis . Similar rates of mortality (at eight weeks) and significant adverse effects were observed between the groups.
Meta-analyses comparing different antifungals are discussed above. (See 'Antifungal agents' above.)
Azoles — Fluconazole has been widely used for the treatment of candidiasis since its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990. The azoles work primarily by inhibiting the cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase . This enzyme is necessary for the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, a vital component of the cellular membrane of fungi.
Fluconazole has an excellent safety profile and is available in intravenous and oral formulations and is also inexpensive, since it is now generic. Fluconazole is highly bioavailable, making oral dosing appropriate for most patients. Most trials evaluating the efficacy of fluconazole for candidemia have used 400 or 800 mg [11,13-15]. For candidemia, we recommend that fluconazole be dosed as follows: 800 mg (12 mg/kg) loading dose, then 400 mg (6 mg/kg) orally or IV daily .
●The activity of voriconazole against Candida species is superior to that of fluconazole, with minimal inhibitory concentrations that are a log or more lower than fluconazole . However, cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole is seen frequently, especially with C. glabrata. Voriconazole has significantly greater in vitro activity against C. krusei isolates compared with fluconazole because of more effective binding of its cytochrome P450 isoenzyme . (See "Antifungal susceptibility testing", section on 'Azoles' and "Antifungal susceptibility testing", section on 'Azoles'.)
●Posaconazole is available as an oral extended-release tablet and an intravenous formulation. It is approved for use as a prophylactic agent for fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease and in patients with prolonged neutropenia due to chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. It is also approved for oropharyngeal candidiasis but not for systemic candidiasis. (See "Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients" and "Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adults with hematologic malignancies" and "Treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis".)
●Itraconazole is available as an oral capsule and a suspension. It is sometimes used for mucosal candidiasis but is not used for systemic infections.
●Isavuconazole was approved for treatment of aspergillosis in 2015 and is available as a tablet and an intravenous formulation. It is formulated as a prodrug, isavuconazonium, for both preparations, which is quickly broken down in the body to the active agent, isavuconazole. Isavuconazole is not approved for the treatment of candidiasis.
Azoles interact with multiple different cytochrome P450 enzymes; alternative antifungal agents, such as echinocandins, may be preferred if patients are taking other medications that utilize P450 pathways. These interactions and other aspects of the pharmacology of the azoles are discussed in detail separately. (See "Pharmacology of azoles".)
In a randomized trial, fluconazole was compared with anidulafungin for treatment of invasive candidiasis in 245 patients: 89 percent had candidemia and only 3 percent were neutropenic . The combined clinical and microbiologic response rates were significantly higher in patients assigned to the anidulafungin arm both at the end of therapy (74 versus 57 percent) and at two-week follow-up (65 versus 49 percent). Mortality rates at 60 days were similar.
The effectiveness of voriconazole for candidemia was shown in a randomized trial in nonneutropenic patients who were treated with either voriconazole alone or amphotericin B for three to seven days followed by fluconazole . Voriconazole therapy led to sterilization of the bloodstream as rapidly as sequential therapy. Success rates at the end of treatment (66 percent for voriconazole and 71 percent for sequential therapy) were similar to those noted in previous trials with other antifungal regimens for the treatment of candidemia. The clinical role for voriconazole in comparison with echinocandins remains unclear. A major concern is the cross-resistance to voriconazole that is seen among many isolates of C. glabrata that are fluconazole resistant. (See 'C. glabrata' below and 'C. glabrata and C. krusei' above.)
Meta-analyses comparing different antifungals are discussed above. (See 'Antifungal agents' above.)
Amphotericin B — Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal agent that disrupts fungal cell wall synthesis because of its ability to bind to sterols, primarily ergosterol, which leads to the formation of pores that allow leakage of cellular components. Amphotericin B deoxycholate, which was the standard drug for the treatment of candidiasis for decades, demonstrates rapidly cidal in vitro activity against most species of Candida, but it is associated with significant nephrotoxicity. Because of this, it is rarely used anymore. Instead, most physicians use a lipid-based amphotericin B formulation, either liposomal amphotericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC). These lipid-based compounds have much less toxicity than amphotericin deoxycholate but are significantly more expensive. (See "Pharmacology of amphotericin B" and "Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity".)
The recommended doses for candidemia follow :
●Lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B [AmBisome], amphotericin lipid complex [Abelcet]) – 3 to 5 mg/kg intravenously daily
●Amphotericin B deoxycholate – 0.5 to 1 mg/kg intravenously daily (recommended only if a lipid formulation of amphotericin B is not available)
Amphotericin B formulations have been proven to be effective in several randomized trials [13-16]. However, amphotericin B formulations are often avoided due to their increased toxicity compared with azoles and echinocandins. They remain useful in cases when resistance to the other antifungal classes is suspected or proven.
Meta-analyses comparing different antifungals are discussed above. (See 'Antifungal agents' above.)
Susceptibility patterns — Susceptibility testing for Candida species is becoming more readily available and widely used. Antifungal susceptibility testing for azoles is recommended for all bloodstream isolates and other clinically significant Candida isolates . Testing for echinocandin susceptibility should be considered for patients who have been treated previously with an echinocandin and in those infected with C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis.
Specific drug resistance information for the various Candida species is found below. Antifungal susceptibility testing is discussed in greater detail separately. (See "Antifungal susceptibility testing".)
C. albicans — The incidence of C. albicans resistance remains low. An analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of approximately 90,000 isolates of C. albicans collected from 40 countries from 1997 to 2005 demonstrated that only 1.5 percent were resistant to fluconazole . More recent studies show resistance to fluconazole ranges between 0.3 and 2 percent [34-36]. Individual cases and small series of non-mucosal infection with fluconazole-resistant C. albicans have been reported from several tertiary care centers and usually occur in immunosuppressed patients who are taking fluconazole chronically for prophylaxis [37-39].
Most C. albicans isolates are susceptible to the echinocandins, although resistance has been reported [40,41]. The vast majority of C. albicans isolates are susceptible to amphotericin B.
C. krusei — C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole due to an altered cytochrome P450 isoenzyme . This resistance cannot be overcome with use of higher drug doses. Voriconazole binds more effectively to the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme in C. krusei than fluconazole, resulting in higher rates of susceptibility .
There are geographic differences in the incidence of voriconazole resistance. In an international surveillance study that included nearly 3500 isolates of C. krusei, 326 were bloodstream isolates. Resistance to voriconazole was noted in 7.4 percent of all bloodstream isolates but was uncommon in those from North America and Europe and was most common in isolates from Latin America . C. krusei isolates are usually susceptible to posaconazole .
In the large surveillance study described above, all C. krusei isolates were susceptible to the echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin) . However, individual cases of resistance to the echinocandins have been reported [46-48].
C. krusei demonstrates decreased susceptibility to amphotericin B, requiring higher doses (1 mg/kg daily of amphotericin B deoxycholate or 5 mg/kg daily of lipid-based formulations) to be used for treatment. C. krusei is usually resistant to flucytosine.
C. glabrata — Many C. glabrata isolates are resistant to the azoles, mostly due to changes in drug efflux [3,49]. This type of resistance can sometimes be overcome by using higher doses of fluconazole, but this is generally not done for invasive infection. Cross-resistance among the azoles is common with C. glabrata. Among the Candida species, the MICs for voriconazole are highest with C. glabrata. Isolates that are resistant to fluconazole are generally resistant to voriconazole as well [50,51].
The echinocandins have generally retained excellent activity against C. glabrata, but resistance to this class of antifungal agents appears to be increasing among C. glabrata isolates [51-54]. Prior exposure to echinocandins is associated with the presence of FKS mutations, which mediate echinocandin resistance [55-57].
Of note, there is increasing concern that some C. glabrata bloodstream isolates with resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole can also become resistant to the echinocandins. This issue has been investigated in the following studies:
●In a surveillance study of the in vitro susceptibility of 1669 C. glabrata bloodstream isolates collected in the United States between 2006 and 2010, 162 isolates (9.7 percent) were resistant to fluconazole, of which 98.8 percent were also not susceptible to voriconazole and 9.3, 9.3, and 8.0 percent were not susceptible to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively . It was noted that, of 162 isolates that were resistant to fluconazole, 18 (11.1 percent) were also resistant to one or more of the echinocandins, with associated mutations in FKS1 or FKS2 genes . In comparison, there were no echinocandin-resistant strains detected among 110 fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates tested between 2001 and 2004, years in which echinocandins were used sparingly.
●In a population-based analysis of echinocandin resistance in 1380 bloodstream isolates of C. glabrata from four United States cities collected between 2008 and 2013, 3 to 4 percent of strains were resistant to all three echinocandins, and approximately one-third of echinocandin-resistant strains were cross-resistant to fluconazole . Nearly all of the isolates with an FKS1 or FKS2 mutation were resistant to at least one echinocandin.
●A 10-year study of C. glabrata bloodstream infections at a single medical center in the United States showed an increase in echinocandin resistance from 4.9 percent in 2001 to 12.3 percent in 2010 . This resistance was confirmed by the presence of FKS mutations; strains categorized as susceptible did not possess acquired mutations. On multivariate analysis, echinocandin resistance was associated with prior exposure to an echinocandin. Among 78 fluconazole-resistant isolates, 11 (14.1 percent) were resistant to one or more echinocandins and 8 (10.3 percent) were resistant to all echinocandins.
●Another retrospective single-center study reported that FKS mutations were identified in 18 percent of 72 patients with C. glabrata candidemia and were associated with an eightfold risk of treatment failure .
●Among 65 patients with underlying hematologic disease, infection with an echinocandin-resistant strain of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, or C. tropicalis was associated with threefold higher rates of 14- and 30-day mortality .
Amphotericin B has delayed killing kinetics against C. glabrata in vitro ; higher doses of amphotericin B are recommended when treating known C. glabrata infection (1 mg/kg daily of amphotericin B deoxycholate or 5 mg/kg daily of lipid-based formulations).
C. parapsilosis — C. parapsilosis is highly susceptible to most antifungal agents. An international surveillance study of 9371 C. parapsilosis isolates collected between 2001 and 2005 found high rates of susceptibility to fluconazole (91 to 96 percent) and voriconazole (95 to 98 percent) in all geographic regions except Africa and the Middle East (79 and 86 percent susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively) . More recent surveillance studies have shown resistance to fluconazole varying between 2 and 6 percent [34-36].
The MICs for C. parapsilosis with all the echinocandins are higher than for other Candida species . The clinical implications of these in vitro data are unclear. In an analysis of five trials of caspofungin use in patients with invasive candidiasis, the overall (clinical and microbiologic) success rate among patients with C. parapsilosis (74 percent) was similar to patients with invasive candidiasis caused by other Candida species . A multicenter prospective observational study of candidemia due to C. parapsilosis in Spain found no differences in outcomes of patients who were treated with an echinocandin compared with those who were treated with an azole . These results should be interpreted with caution because this was not a randomized trial, but it is unlikely that such a study will be performed .
C. tropicalis — C. tropicalis is usually susceptible to the azoles, amphotericin B, and the echinocandins. However, breakthrough C. tropicalis bloodstream infections with resistance to caspofungin have been reported rarely in patients with hematologic malignancies [41,65,66]. Fluconazole resistance has been reported in large surveillance studies of Candida isolates but generally remains below 3 percent [34,36].
C. lusitaniae — C. lusitaniae is unique among Candida species in that it is often resistant to or quickly becomes resistant to amphotericin B; however, it is usually susceptible to the azoles and echinocandins .
C. guilliermondii — C. guilliermondii is an uncommon Candida species that in some studies has appeared to cause infections more often in patients who have hematologic malignancies . Treatment can be problematic because some isolates have reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and many have reduced susceptibility to echinocandins [69,70]. However, C. guilliermondii is usually susceptible to amphotericin B.
C. dubliniensis — C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic traits with C. albicans, and many isolates were previously misidentified as C. albicans. Special techniques must be undertaken in the microbiology laboratory to differentiate between these two species . C. dubliniensis rose to importance in the mid-1990s when it was found primarily in AIDS patients and most of the isolates were fluconazole resistant. It has subsequently been shown that this species causes disease in other populations as well, and the susceptibilities are similar to those of C. albicans. Most C. dubliniensis isolates are azole susceptible and can therefore be treated with fluconazole; they are also susceptible to echinocandins and amphotericin B.
C. auris — Most C. auris isolates have been highly resistant to fluconazole based upon susceptibility breakpoints established for other Candida species; no breakpoints have been established for this species [7,72,73]. Based on tentative breakpoints, among 35 clinical isolates from the United States, 30 (86 percent) were resistant to fluconazole, 15 (43 percent) were resistant to amphotericin B, and 1 (3 percent) was resistant to echinocandins . More than half of isolates have had high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for voriconazole . Some isolates have had elevated MICs for all three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, polyenes, and echinocandins).
All C. auris isolates should undergo antifungal susceptibility testing .
Ophthalmologic evaluation — All patients who have candidemia, whether or not they have ocular symptoms, should undergo an ophthalmologic examination by an ophthalmologist to look for evidence of endophthalmitis, as recommended in the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for treatment of candidiasis . This is discussed in greater detail separately. (See "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis", section on 'Ophthalmic examination'.)
Central venous catheter removal — The 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the management of candidiasis gives different recommendations for nonneutropenic patients and neutropenic patients; many neutropenic patients have chemotherapy-induced mucositis and a likely gastrointestinal source for candidemia . For nonneutropenic patients, the central venous catheter (CVC) should be removed in most cases and as early as it is possible to do safely when the source is presumed to be the CVC. For neutropenic patients, CVC removal should be considered on an individual basis, taking into account the feasibility and risk of removal.
Clearance of candidemia occurs more quickly when CVCs are removed [75,76], and higher mortality has been documented if they remain [5,21,63,76-78]. In addition, treatment with an antifungal agent is required ; it should never be assumed that removal of a catheter alone is adequate therapy for candidemia.
Some authorities have suggested that catheter removal may not be necessary in patients who have a gastrointestinal source of candidemia, such as patients with chemotherapy-induced mucositis [3,79,80]. Some clinicians will attempt to retain the catheters in such patients [81,82], particularly given the risk of CVC removal in the setting of thrombocytopenia, which is common following cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Several studies, albeit with limitations, have evaluated whether CVC removal is beneficial:
●A retrospective subgroup analysis of two randomized trials of patients with candidemia was performed in order to assess the potential benefit of early CVC removal . In the univariate analysis, early removal of the CVC (within 24 or 48 hours) did not improve time to mycologic eradication or rates of persistent or recurrent candidemia but was associated with improved treatment success and survival. However, in the multivariate analysis, these benefits were lost.
●A study in cancer patients used a fivefold difference in quantitative cultures taken from the central catheter and a peripheral vein to help define catheter-associated candidemia . Using these criteria, patients with non-catheter sources did not benefit from catheter removal in addition to antifungal agents.
●In contrast with the studies described above, an individual patient-level quantitative review that evaluated observational data gathered from seven randomized treatment trials of candidemia and invasive candidiasis mostly in nonneutropenic patients found that removal of a CVC was associated with decreased mortality (odds ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.72) .
There are multiple limitations to observational studies and subgroup analyses of randomized trials, including unrecognized confounders, treatment bias, lack of standardized criteria for catheter removal or data on time to removal, and lack of statistical power [84,85]. No randomized trials have been published that have assessed the efficacy of CVC removal .
Granulocyte transfusions — Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized granulocyte transfusions can be considered as an adjunctive therapy in cases of persistent candidemia with anticipated protracted neutropenia because persistent neutropenia is associated with an increased risk of treatment failure . Limited data suggest that granulocyte transfusions may be beneficial in patients with persistent candidemia and prolonged neutropenia . However, the benefit of granulocyte transfusions has not been clearly established. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was stopped prematurely and did not show benefit . (See "Granulocyte transfusions".)
Infection control precautions for C. auris — Given concerns about resistance and transmission of C. auris in healthcare facilities, there are special infection control precautions for patients who are colonized or infected with C. auris . These can be found on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
EMPIRIC ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY — Empiric antifungal therapy is given routinely to patients with neutropenic fever since they are at substantial risk for invasive candidiasis. This is discussed in detail separately. (See "Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)", section on 'Addition of an antifungal agent'.)
In addition, nonneutropenic patients who have persistent fever or unexplained hypotension despite broad-spectrum antibacterial agents may have candidemia or invasive candidiasis. These patients may benefit from empiric therapy with an antifungal agent. In general, the approach to the use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy in nonneutropenic patients is the same as that for treatment of candidemia. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults", section on 'Risk factors'.)
Criteria for the need for empiric therapy remain poorly defined and should include the clinical assessment of risk factors (eg, central venous catheters, parenteral nutrition, hemodialysis, trauma, broad-spectrum antibiotics, recent surgery [particularly abdominal surgery]), non–culture-based surrogate markers for invasive candidiasis (eg, beta-D-glucan), and culture data regarding Candida colonization at nonsterile sites. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults", section on 'Risk factors'.)
The 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines recommend that empiric antifungal therapy be considered in critically ill patients who are at risk for invasive candidiasis and who have persistent fevers and no other known cause of fever; the decision regarding empiric therapy should be based upon clinical assessment of risk factors, surrogate markers for invasive candidiasis (eg, beta-D-glucan) and/or culture data from nonsterile sites . Empiric therapy should be started as soon as possible in patients with risk factors for invasive candidiasis and signs of septic shock because of the high mortality in this group of patients . We agree with this approach.
It is not clear whether the empiric use of antifungal agents is beneficial in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. One multicenter randomized trial in the ICU setting found no difference in rate of invasive candidiasis or outcomes between patients given fluconazole empirically and those given placebo; invasive candidiasis occurred in only 9 patients in the fluconazole group and in 11 patients in the placebo group (5 versus 9 percent), a nonsignificant difference . However, this trial was underpowered, with so few patients developing invasive candidiasis that a significant treatment benefit could not be shown.
In a multicenter randomized trial (EMPIRICUS) of 260 non-neutropenic critically ill patients with Candida colonization at multiple sites, multiorgan failure, and ICU-acquired sepsis, empiric treatment with micafungin for 14 days did not result in improved infection-free survival at 28 days but did decrease the rate of new fungal infections .
For empiric therapy in ICU patients, we recommend an echinocandin. Fluconazole can be used as an alternative in patients who have not received prior fluconazole and who are colonized with fluconazole-susceptible species. (See "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults", section on 'Risk factors' and 'Choice of initial agent' above.)
PROPHYLAXIS AND PREEMPTIVE THERAPY IN ICU PATIENTS — Because mortality remains high in patients with candidemia, antifungal prophylaxis has been studied as a means to prevent its occurrence. However, the optimal approach remains unclear. We suggest not routinely using prophylactic antifungal agents in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, consideration can be given to the use of prophylaxis in selected patients in ICUs that have high rates (>5 percent) of invasive candidiasis . Only patients at the highest risk for invasive disease should be targeted for prophylaxis; risk factors include central venous catheters, parenteral nutrition, hemodialysis, trauma, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and recent surgery (particularly abdominal surgery) (see "Epidemiology and pathogenesis of candidemia in adults"). In such patients, either fluconazole or an echinocandin can be used, depending upon the risk of resistant Candida species. Dosing is discussed above. (See 'Echinocandins' above and 'Azoles' above.)
Daily bathing of ICU patients with chlorhexidine can also be considered, as this measure decreased the incidence of bloodstream infections, including candidemia . (See "Infections and antimicrobial resistance in the intensive care unit: Epidemiology and prevention", section on 'Decolonization/patient bathing'.)
Broad use of fluconazole in an ICU setting has been shown to decrease invasive candidiasis in some trials [95,96] but not in others [97,98]. However, most ICUs have not adopted routine fluconazole prophylaxis because widespread use would likely contribute to increasing fluconazole resistance. In a small study, more selective fluconazole prophylaxis for patients at high risk for intraabdominal candidiasis was beneficial . Several meta-analyses have been published on the subject of antifungal prophylaxis in the ICU setting [100-103]. All of these meta-analyses noted a reduction in invasive candidiasis, but only one showed a reduction in mortality (risk ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81) .
Two trials have assessed the efficacy of prophylaxis or preemptive therapy with an echinocandin in the ICU setting:
●In a randomized trial, adults who were deemed to be at high risk for invasive candidiasis (by utilizing a clinical prediction rule) were randomly assigned to receive caspofungin or placebo; there was a trend toward disease reduction in the caspofungin arm . There were 10 Candida infections in 102 patients in the caspofungin arm and 14 in the 84 patients who received placebo, a nonsignificant difference. There were no differences in mortality between the two groups. However, this study had to be stopped before the endpoint could be reached because of difficulty enrolling an adequate number of patients.
●In another trial, high-risk surgical ICU patients requiring surgery for intraabdominal infection were randomly assigned to receive preemptive therapy with either micafungin or placebo . The incidence of invasive candidiasis was 11.1 percent in patients who received micafungin and 8.9 percent in patients who received placebo (difference 2.24 percent; 95% CI -5.52 to 10.20). There was no difference between the arms in median time to invasive candidiasis. It is possible that this trial failed to show benefit because therapy was started too late to prevent invasive candidiasis.
OUTCOMES — Untreated candidemia has a mortality rate of over 60 percent . With treatment, the overall mortality of candidemia is approximately 30 to 40 percent [21,85]. A delay in treatment can increase mortality [104-106]. As an example, in one retrospective cohort study of 230 patients with candidemia, the number of days that passed from notification of the first positive culture for yeast to the initiation of fluconazole correlated with increased mortality rates as follows: zero days (15 percent); one day (24 percent); two days (37 percent); three days (41 percent) .
Among candidemic patients with septic shock, the outcomes are even poorer. In a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with septic shock and a positive blood culture for Candida spp, 155 of 224 patients (64 percent) died during hospitalization . The in-hospital mortality rate among the 142 patients who had adequate source control within 24 hours of the onset of septic shock and antifungal therapy administered within 24 hours of the onset of septic shock was 53 percent, compared with 98 percent among the 82 patients for whom these goals were not attained. On multivariate analysis, both failure to achieve timely source control (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 77.4, 95% CI 21.5-278.4) and delayed antifungal therapy (aOR 33.8, 95% CI 9.7-118.0) were highly associated with in-hospital mortality. Other factors that were independently associated with in-hospital mortality on multivariate analysis included red blood cell transfusion, solid tumor with metastases, class IV congestive heart failure, and higher APACHE II score.
Factors that have been associated with increased mortality in other studies of hospitalized patients with candidemia include higher APACHE II scores, inadequate fluconazole dosing; infection with an echinocandin-resistant strain of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, or C. tropicalis; retention of a central venous catheter; increasing age; use of immunosuppressive therapy; and infection with C. tropicalis [21,59,77,107]. C. parapsilosis has been associated with lower mortality rates than other Candida species . In ICU patients, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, and mechanical ventilation were associated with death in one study , whereas, in non-ICU patients, glucocorticoid use at the time that a positive blood culture was drawn was associated with increased mortality in another study .
Among cancer patients, persistent neutropenia, higher APACHE III score, and visceral dissemination have been associated with poor prognosis .
SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS — Links to society and government-sponsored guidelines from selected countries and regions around the world are provided separately. (See "Society guideline links: Candidiasis".)
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
●For nonneutropenic and neutropenic patients with candidemia (including the emerging species, Candida auris), we recommend an echinocandin rather than fluconazole or amphotericin B (table 1) (Grade 1B). (See 'Choice of initial agent' above.)
●The echinocandins are administered intravenously as follows:
•Caspofungin is given at an initial dose of 70 mg on the first day of treatment, followed by 50 mg daily; dose reduction is required with hepatic dysfunction.
•Anidulafungin is given at an initial dose of 200 mg on the first day, followed by 100 mg daily.
●Nonneutropenic and neutropenic patients who are clinically stable, who have Candida isolates that are susceptible to fluconazole, and who have negative repeat blood cultures can be transitioned to oral fluconazole after five to seven days. For most Candida species, fluconazole should be given at a dose of 400 mg (6 mg/kg) orally once daily for step-down therapy. (See 'Oral step-down therapy' above.)
●Blood cultures should be checked daily or every other day after initiating antifungal therapy until they become negative. (See 'Duration' above.)
●All patients who have candidemia, whether or not they have ocular symptoms, should undergo an ophthalmologic examination by an ophthalmologist to look for evidence of endophthalmitis. (See 'Ophthalmologic evaluation' above and "Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of fungal endophthalmitis", section on 'Ophthalmic examination'.)
●In the patient with candidemia alone, treatment should be continued for 14 days after blood cultures have yielded no yeast. In addition, all patients should have resolution of symptoms attributable to candidemia and resolution of neutropenia before antifungal therapy is discontinued. Patients with candidemia and metastatic foci of infection (eg, eye, bone, heart, liver, spleen) require a longer duration of therapy. (See 'Duration' above and "Treatment of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Candida species" and "Candida osteoarticular infections" and "Candida endocarditis and suppurative thrombophlebitis" and "Chronic disseminated candidiasis (hepatosplenic candidiasis)".)
●Central venous catheters (CVCs) should be removed from most patients with candidemia as soon as possible. In patients in whom candidemia is likely to come from the gastrointestinal tract in the setting of chemotherapy-induced mucositis, removal should be considered, acknowledging the risks of CVC removal in the setting of thrombocytopenia (which is common in such patients). Some clinicians will attempt to retain the catheter in these patients. (See 'Central venous catheter removal' above.)
●Empiric antifungal therapy recommendations in patients with neutropenic fever and antifungal prophylaxis in neutropenic patients are discussed in detail elsewhere. (See "Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)", section on 'Addition of an antifungal agent' and "Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adults with hematologic malignancies" and "Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients".)
●Empiric antifungal therapy and antifungal prophylaxis in intensive care unit patients are discussed above. (See 'Empiric antifungal therapy' above and 'Prophylaxis and preemptive therapy in ICU patients' above.)
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