Medline ® Abstracts for References 15,16,18
of 'Treatment for potentially resectable exocrine pancreatic cancer'
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial.
Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, Almond J, Link K, Beger H, Bassi C, Falconi M, Pederzoli P, Dervenis C, Fernandez-Cruz L, Lacaine F, Pap A, Spooner D, Kerr DJ, Friess H, Büchler MW, European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer
BACKGROUND: The role of adjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain. The European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC) assessed the roles of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in a randomised study.
METHODS: After resection, patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (20 Gy in ten daily fractions over 2 weeks with 500 mg/m(2) fluorouracil intravenously on days 1-3, repeated after 2 weeks) or chemotherapy (intravenous fluorouracil 425 mg/m(2) and folinic acid 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days, monthly for 6 months). Clinicians could randomise patients into a two-by-two factorial design (observation, chemoradiotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or both) or into one of the main treatment comparisons (chemoradiotherapy versus no chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy). The primary endpoint was death, and all analyses were by intention to treat. Findings 541 eligible patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were randomised: 285 in the two-by-two factorial design (70 chemoradiotherapy, 74 chemotherapy, 72 both, 69 observation); afurther 68 patients were randomly assigned chemoradiotherapy or no chemoradiotherapy and 188 chemotherapy or no chemotherapy. Median follow-up of the 227 (42%) patients still alive was 10 months (range 0-62). Overall results showed no benefit for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (median survival 15.5 months in 175 patients with chemoradiotherapy vs 16.1 months in 178 patients without; hazard ratio 1.18 [95% CI 0.90-1.55], p=0.24). There was evidence of a survival benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy (median survival 19.7 months in 238 patients with chemotherapy vs 14.0 months in 235 patients without; hazard ratio 0.66 [0.52-0.83], p=0.0005). Interpretation This study showed no survival benefit for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy but revealed a potential benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy, justifying further randomised controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.
Department of Surgery, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK. email@example.com
A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer.
Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, Bassi C, Dunn JA, Hickey H, Beger H, Fernandez-Cruz L, Dervenis C, Lacaine F, Falconi M, Pederzoli P, Pap A, Spooner D, Kerr DJ, Büchler MW, European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer
N Engl J Med. 2004;350(12):1200.
BACKGROUND: The effect of adjuvant treatment on survival in pancreatic cancer is unclear. We report the final results of the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer 1 Trial and update the interim results.
METHODS: In a multicenter trial using a two-by-two factorial design, we randomly assigned 73 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to treatment with chemoradiotherapy alone (20 Gy over a two-week period plus fluorouracil), 75 patients to chemotherapy alone (fluorouracil), 72 patients to both chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy, and 69 patients to observation.
RESULTS: The analysis was based on 237 deaths among the 289 patients (82 percent) and a median follow-up of 47 months (interquartile range, 33 to 62). The estimated five-year survival rate was 10 percent among patients assigned to receive chemoradiotherapy and 20 percent among patients who did not receive chemoradiotherapy (P=0.05). The five-year survival rate was 21 percent among patients who receivedchemotherapy and 8 percent among patients who did not receive chemotherapy (P=0.009). The benefit of chemotherapy persisted after adjustment for major prognostic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy has a significant survival benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer, whereas adjuvant chemoradiotherapy has a deleterious effect on survival.
Department of Surgery, Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid vs observation for pancreatic cancer: composite data from the ESPAC-1 and -3(v1) trials.
Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Tudur Smith C, Bassi C, Ghaneh P, Owen E, Moore M, Padbury R, Doi R, Smith D, Büchler MW
Br J Cancer. 2009;100(2):246. Epub 2009 Jan 6.
The ESPAC-1, ESPAC-1 plus, and early ESPAC-3(v1) results (458 randomized patients; 364 deaths) were used to estimate the effectiveness of adjuvant 5FU/FA vs resection alone for pancreatic cancer using meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI=0.55-0.88) P=0.003, and the median survival of 23.2 (95% CI=20.1-26.5) months with 5FU/FA vs 16.8 (95% CI=14.3-19.2) months with resection alone supports the use of adjuvant 5FU/FA in pancreatic cancer.
CR-UK Liverpool Cancer Trials Unit, University of Liverpool Cancer Research Centre, Liverpool, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org