Medline ® Abstract for Reference 12
of 'Treatment and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction'
Heart failure: what does ejection fraction have to do with it?
Iwano H, Little WC
J Cardiol. 2013 Jul;62(1):1-3. Epub 2013 May 11.
Heart failure (HF) occurs across the entire range of left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions (EF), not just reduced EF. Nearly half or more patients presenting with HF have a preserved EF>0.50 (HFpEF). Diastolic dysfunction is apparent in all patients with HF, regardless of EF. A preserved EF indicates that the end-diastolic volume is appropriate for the stroke volume, and a reduced EF indicates that the end-diastolic volume is enlarged relative to stroke volume (i.e. the LV is dilated). Most therapies proven to be effective in HF with a reduced EF (ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and cardiac resynchronization) reverse LV dilation. These therapies have not been proven to be effective in HFpEF. Increasing c-GMP may be a treatment target in HFpEF, and potential ways of increasing c-GMP are being studied. Finally, comorbidities are important in HFpEF and are additional targets for therapy.
Section on Cardiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1045, USA.