Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small and large intestine

Christoph F Dietrich, MD, MBA
Section Editor
John R Saltzman, MD, FACP, FACG, FASGE, AGAF
Deputy Editor
Kristen M Robson, MD, MBA, FACG


Transabdominal ultrasonography is most commonly used to obtain images of hepatobiliary, urogenital, and pelvic structures. Its utility for imaging the alimentary gastrointestinal tract is less well established, principally because of technical difficulties in obtaining quality images of these regions. However, improvements in ultrasound technology and increasing familiarity with ultrasonographic findings in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders are broadening its applications.

An advantage of ultrasound imaging compared with endoscopy and contrast radiography is that it permits evaluation of the transmural aspects of inflammatory or neoplastic pathology within its surrounding structures [1]. This can provide an important contribution for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity. Other advantages are that it is widely available, noninvasive, can be performed without preparation, and lacks radiation exposure (which may be particularly desirable in patients such as pregnant women).

On the other hand, important limitations of ultrasonography are that the alimentary tract cannot be visualized over its entire length, many of the findings are nonspecific, and obtaining and interpreting the images is highly operator-dependent. Furthermore, ultrasound is far less useful in obese patients in whom high-frequency scanning may not be possible.

This topic review will provide an overview of transabdominal ultrasonography of the small and large bowel, while summarizing its use in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of the hepatobiliary tract is discussed elsewhere. (See "Ultrasonography of the hepatobiliary tract".)


Imaging of the alimentary tract requires high-frequency (5 to 17 MHz), high-resolution linear or convex array transducers, a great deal of scanning experience, and patience. The standardized evaluation should optimally take place preprandially since images from filled intestines can be difficult to interpret, particularly when motility is being evaluated. On the other hand, under emergency conditions, such as ileus (eg, due to obstruction, an incarcerated hernia, or intussusception), appendicitis, or diverticulitis, the exam may be performed postprandially.

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Aug 18, 2015.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Dietrich CF, Brunner V, Lembcke B. [Intestinal ultrasound in rare small and large intestinal diseases]. Z Gastroenterol 1998; 36:955.
  2. Allgayer H, Braden B, Dietrich CF. Transabdominal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease. Conventional and recently developed techniques--update. Med Ultrason 2011; 13:302.
  3. Chiorean L, Schreiber-Dietrich D, Braden B, et al. Ultrasonographic imaging of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21:5231.
  4. Chiorean L, Schreiber-Dietrich D, Braden B, et al. Transabdominal ultrasound for standardized measurement of bowel wall thickness in normal children and those with Crohn's disease. Med Ultrason 2014; 16:319.
  5. Meckler U, Caspary WF, Clement T, et al. [Sonography in Crohn disease--the conclusions of an experts' group]. Z Gastroenterol 1991; 29:355.
  6. Meckler U, Herzog P. [Sonographic structure of the intestinal wall--significance for the diagnosis of inflammatory intestinal diseases]. Ultraschall Med 1989; 10:152.
  7. Cui XW, Jenssen C, Saftoiu A, et al. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19:4850.
  8. Dietrich CF, Hocke M, Jenssen C. [Ultrasound for abdominal lymphadenopathy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2013; 138:1001.
  9. Angerson WJ, Allison MC, Baxter JN, Russell RI. Neoterminal ileal blood flow after ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease. Gut 1993; 34:1531.
  10. Britton I, Maguire C, Adams C, et al. Assessment of the role and reliability of sonographic post-prandial flow response in grading Crohn's disease activity. Clin Radiol 1998; 53:599.
  11. Ludwig D, Wiener S, Brüning A, et al. Mesenteric blood flow is related to disease activity and risk of relapse in Crohn's disease: a prospective follow-up study. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94:2942.
  12. Silván Delgado M, Juanco Pedregal C, Parra Blanco JA, Barreda González M. Usefulness of Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of patients with active Crohn's disease. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 1997; 89:677.
  13. van Oostayen JA, Wasser MN, Griffioen G, et al. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by measurement of superior mesenteric artery flow with Doppler ultrasound. Neth J Med 1998; 53:S3.
  14. van Oostayen JA, Wasser MN, van Hogezand RA, et al. Doppler sonography evaluation of superior mesenteric artery flow to assess Crohn's disease activity: correlation with clinical evaluation, Crohn's disease activity index, and alpha 1-antitrypsin clearance in feces. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997; 168:429.
  15. van Oostayen JA, Wasser MN, van Hogezand RA, et al. Activity of Crohn disease assessed by measurement of superior mesenteric artery flow with Doppler US. Radiology 1994; 193:551.
  16. Spalinger J, Patriquin H, Miron MC, et al. Doppler US in patients with crohn disease: vessel density in the diseased bowel reflects disease activity. Radiology 2000; 217:787.
  17. Aliotta A, Pompili M, Rapaccini GL, et al. Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery in celiac patients and in healthy controls in fasting conditions and after saccharose ingestion. J Ultrasound Med 1997; 16:85.
  18. Alvarez D, Vazquez H, Bai JC, et al. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow in celiac disease. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38:1175.
  19. Arienti V, Califano C, Brusco G, et al. Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of splanchnic blood flow in coeliac disease. Gut 1996; 39:369.
  20. Bolondi L, Li Bassi S, Gaiani S, et al. Changes in mesenteric venous flow due to celiac sprue. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37:925.
  21. Ertem D, Tüney D, Baloglu H, Pehlivanoglu E. Superior mesenteric artery blood flow in children with celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998; 26:140.
  22. Giovagnorio F, Picarelli A, Di Giovambattista F, Mastracchio A. Evaluation with Doppler sonography of mesenteric blood flow in celiac disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171:629.
  23. Danse EM, Laterre PF, Van Beers BE, et al. Early diagnosis of acute intestinal ischaemia: contribution of colour Doppler sonography. Acta Chir Belg 1997; 97:173.
  24. Danse EM, Van Beers BE, Goffette P, et al. Diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia by color Doppler sonography. Color Doppler sonography and acute intestinal ischemia. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1996; 59:140.
  25. Patriquin HB, Garcier JM, Lafortune M, et al. Appendicitis in children and young adults: Doppler sonographic-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996; 166:629.
  26. Siegel MJ, Friedland JA, Hildebolt CF. Bowel wall thickening in children: differentiation with US. Radiology 1997; 203:631.
  27. Teefey SA, Roarke MC, Brink JA, et al. Bowel wall thickening: differentiation of inflammation from ischemia with color Doppler and duplex US. Radiology 1996; 198:547.
  28. Clautice-Engle T, Jeffrey RB Jr, Li KC, Barth RA. Power Doppler imaging of focal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: comparison with conventional color Doppler imaging. J Ultrasound Med 1996; 15:63.
  29. Ruess L, Blask AR, Bulas DI, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease in children and young adults: correlation of sonographic and clinical parameters during treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 175:79.
  30. Klein SA, Martin H, Schreiber-Dietrich D, et al. A new approach to evaluating intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease by transabdominal sonography and colour Doppler imaging. Br J Haematol 2001; 115:929.
  31. Migaleddu V, Scanu AM, Quaia E, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2009; 137:43.
  32. Dietrich CF, Jedrzejczyk M, Ignee A. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall. Eur J Radiol 2007; 64:202.
  33. Braden B, Ignee A, Hocke M, et al. Diagnostic value and clinical utility of contrast enhanced ultrasound in intestinal diseases. Dig Liver Dis 2010; 42:667.
  34. Fröhlich E, Muller R, Cui XW, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for quantification of tissue perfusion. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34:179.
  35. Schreyer AG, Finkenzeller T, Gössmann H, et al. Microcirculation and perfusion with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in Crohn's disease: first results with linear contrast harmonic imaging (CHI). Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2008; 40:143.
  36. Dietrich CF, Averkiou MA, Correas JM, et al. An EFSUMB introduction into Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (DCE-US) for quantification of tumour perfusion. Ultraschall Med 2012; 33:344.
  37. Cui XW, Ignee A, Jedrzejczyk M, Dietrich CF. Dynamic Vascular Pattern (DVP), a quantification tool for contrast enhanced ultrasound. Z Gastroenterol 2013; 51:427.
  38. Girlich C, Jung EM, Huber E, et al. Comparison between preoperative quantitative assessment of bowel wall vascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and operative macroscopic findings and results of histopathological scoring in Crohn's disease. Ultraschall Med 2011; 32:154.
  39. Ripollés T, Martínez MJ, Paredes JM, et al. Crohn disease: correlation of findings at contrast-enhanced US with severity at endoscopy. Radiology 2009; 253:241.
  40. Ripollés T, Rausell N, Paredes JM, et al. Effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterisation of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease: a comparison with surgical histopathology analysis. J Crohns Colitis 2013; 7:120.
  41. Paredes JM, Ripollés T, Cortés X, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: usefulness in the assessment of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. J Crohns Colitis 2013; 7:192.
  42. Piscaglia F, Nolsøe C, Dietrich CF, et al. The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations on the Clinical Practice of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS): update 2011 on non-hepatic applications. Ultraschall Med 2012; 33:33.
  43. Claudon M, Dietrich CF, Choi BI, et al. Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver--update 2012: a WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative in cooperation with representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS. Ultraschall Med 2013; 34:11.
  44. Ignee A, Jenssen C, Cui XW, et al. Intracavitary contrast-enhanced ultrasound in abscess drainage--feasibility and clinical value. Scand J Gastroenterol 2016; 51:41.
  45. Cui XW, Ignee A, Baum U, Dietrich CF. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results. Ultrasound Med Biol 2015; 41:975.
  46. Cosgrove D, Piscaglia F, Bamber J, et al. EFSUMB guidelines and recommendations on the clinical use of ultrasound elastography. Part 2: Clinical applications. Ultraschall Med 2013; 34:238.
  47. Dietrich CF, Cantisani V. Current status and perspectives of elastography. Eur J Radiol 2014; 83:403.
  48. Stidham RW, Xu J, Johnson LA, et al. Ultrasound elasticity imaging for detecting intestinal fibrosis and inflammation in rats and humans with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2011; 141:819.
  49. Dillman JR, Stidham RW, Higgins PD, et al. US elastography-derived shear wave velocity helps distinguish acutely inflamed from fibrotic bowel in a Crohn disease animal model. Radiology 2013; 267:757.
  50. Rustemovic N, Cukovic-Cavka S, Brinar M, et al. A pilot study of transrectal endoscopic ultrasound elastography in inflammatory bowel disease. BMC Gastroenterol 2011; 11:113.
  51. Ishikawa D, Ando T, Watanabe O, et al. Images of colonic real-time tissue sonoelastography correlate with those of colonoscopy and may predict response to therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis. BMC Gastroenterol 2011; 11:29.
  52. Dixit R, Chowdhury V, Kumar N. Hydrocolonic sonography in the evaluation of colonic lesions. Abdom Imaging 1999; 24:497.
  53. Elewaut AE, Afschrift M. Hydrocolonic sonography: a novel screening method for the detection of colon disease? Bildgebung 1995; 62:230.
  54. Limberg B, Osswald B. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease by hydrocolonic sonography. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89:1051.
  55. Nuernberg D, Ignee A, Dietrich CF. [Current status of ultrasound in gastroenterology--bowel and upper gastrointestinal tract--part 1]. Z Gastroenterol 2007; 45:629.
  56. Maconi G, Ardizzone S, Greco S, et al. Transperineal ultrasound in the detection of perianal and rectovaginal fistulae in Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102:2214.
  57. Dietrich CF, Barreiros AP, Nuernberg D, et al. [Perianal ultrasound]. Z Gastroenterol 2008; 46:625.
  58. Ozel A, Orhan UP, Akdana B, et al. Sonographic appearance of the normal appendix in children. J Clin Ultrasound 2011; 39:183.
  59. Goldin AB, Khanna P, Thapa M, et al. Revised ultrasound criteria for appendicitis in children improve diagnostic accuracy. Pediatr Radiol 2011; 41:993.
  60. Daar AS. Acute primary epiploic appendagitis. Br J Clin Pract 1981; 35:333, 335.
  61. Lee MP. Small bowel obstruction due to epiploic appendagitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85:771.
  62. Legome EL, Sims C, Rao PM. Epiploic appendagitis: adding to the differential of acute abdominal pain. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:823.
  63. Mollà E, Ripollés T, Martínez MJ, et al. Primary epiploic appendagitis: US and CT findings. Eur Radiol 1998; 8:435.
  64. Rao PM, Novelline RA. Case 6: primary epiploic appendagitis. Radiology 1999; 210:145.
  65. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Wittenberg J, Warshaw AL. Misdiagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis. Am J Surg 1998; 176:81.
  66. Rao PM, Wittenberg J, Lawrason JN. Primary epiploic appendagitis: evolutionary changes in CT appearance. Radiology 1997; 204:713.
  67. Rioux M, Langis P. Primary epiploic appendagitis: clinical, US, and CT findings in 14 cases. Radiology 1994; 191:523.
  68. Rosen P, Berlin RD, Poore GP. Appendagitis masquerading as appendicitis. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:903.
  69. Vinson DR. Epiploic appendagitis: a new diagnosis for the emergency physician. Two case reports and a review. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:827.
  70. Danse EM, Van Beers BE, Baudrez V, et al. Epiploic appendagitis: color Doppler sonographic findings. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:183.
  71. Görg C, Egbring J, Bert T. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of epiploic appendagitis. Ultraschall Med 2009; 30:163.
  72. Federmann G. [Sonography in the diagnosis of acute colonic diverticulitis]. Chirurg 1989; 60:415.
  73. Pradel JA, Adell JF, Taourel P, et al. Acute colonic diverticulitis: prospective comparative evaluation with US and CT. Radiology 1997; 205:503.
  74. Schwerk WB, Schwarz S, Rothmund M. Sonography in acute colonic diverticulitis. A prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum 1992; 35:1077.
  75. Schwerk WB, Schwarz S, Rothmund M, Arnold R. [Colon diverticulitis: imaging diagnosis with ultrasound--a prospective study]. Z Gastroenterol 1993; 31:294.
  76. Verbanck J, Lambrecht S, Rutgeerts L, et al. Can sonography diagnose acute colonic diverticulitis in patients with acute intestinal inflammation? A prospective study. J Clin Ultrasound 1989; 17:661.
  77. Zielke A, Hasse C, Nies C, et al. Prospective evaluation of ultrasonography in acute colonic diverticulitis. Br J Surg 1997; 84:385.
  78. Chou YH, Chiou HJ, Tiu CM, et al. Sonography of acute right side colonic diverticulitis. Am J Surg 2001; 181:122.
  79. Hollerweger A, Macheiner P, Rettenbacher T, et al. Colonic diverticulitis: diagnostic value and appearance of inflamed diverticula-sonographic evaluation. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:1956.
  80. Moll R, Mittelkötter U, Reith HB, et al. [Which imaging in case of sigmoid diverticulitis? The value of ultrasound (Conventional B-mode in combination with hydrocolonsonography and colour flow Doppler) in comparison to the well-established modalities like contrast enema and helical computertomography]. Zentralbl Chir 2002; 127:297.
  81. Bozkurt T, Richter F, Lux G. Ultrasonography as a primary diagnostic tool in patients with inflammatory disease and tumors of the small intestine and large bowel. J Clin Ultrasound 1994; 22:85.
  82. Faure C, Belarbi N, Mougenot JF, et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of inflammatory bowel disease in children: comparison with ileocolonoscopy. J Pediatr 1997; 130:147.
  83. Khaw KT, Saverymuttu SH, Joseph AE. Correlation of 111indium WBC scintigraphy with ultrasound in the detection and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Radiol 1990; 42:410.
  84. Pradel JA, David XR, Taourel P, et al. Sonographic assessment of the normal and abnormal bowel wall in nondiverticular ileitis and colitis. Abdom Imaging 1997; 22:167.
  85. Reimund JM, Jung-Chaigneau E, Chamouard P, et al. [Diagnostic value of high resolution sonography in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1999; 23:740.
  86. Andreoli A, Cerro P, Falasco G, et al. Role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of postsurgical recurrence of Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93:1117.
  87. Brignola C, Belloli C, Iannone P, et al. Comparison of scintigraphy with indium-111 leukocyte scan and ultrasonography in assessment of X-ray-demonstrated lesions of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38:433.
  88. DiCandio G, Mosca F, Campatelli A, et al. Sonographic detection of postsurgical recurrence of Crohn disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1986; 146:523.
  89. Hata J, Haruma K, Suenaga K, et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87:443.
  90. Hollerbach S, Geissler A, Schiegl H, et al. The accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in the assessment of bowel disorders. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998; 33:1201.
  91. Limberg B. Diagnosis of acute ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease by colonic sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 1989; 17:25.
  92. Maconi G, Bollani S, Bianchi Porro G. Ultrasonographic detection of intestinal complications in Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41:1643.
  93. Pedersen BH, Grønvall S, Dorph S, et al. The value of dynamic ultrasound scanning in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1986; 21:969.
  94. Sheridan MB, Nicholson DA, Martin DF. Transabdominal ultrasonography as the primary investigation in patients with suspected Crohn's disease or recurrence: a prospective study. Clin Radiol 1993; 48:402.
  95. Solvig J, Ekberg O, Lindgren S, et al. Ultrasound examination of the small bowel: comparison with enteroclysis in patients with Crohn disease. Abdom Imaging 1995; 20:323.
  96. Sonnenberg A, Erckenbrecht J, Peter P, Niederau C. Detection of Crohn's disease by ultrasound. Gastroenterology 1982; 83:430.
  97. Stiatti A, Martinuzzi A, Bartolini M, et al. [Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory intestinal disease]. Radiol Med 1990; 80:301.
  98. Parente F, Maconi G, Bollani S, et al. Bowel ultrasound in assessment of Crohn's disease and detection of related small bowel strictures: a prospective comparative study versus x ray and intraoperative findings. Gut 2002; 50:490.
  99. Miao YM, Koh DM, Amin Z, et al. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging assessmentof active bowel segments in Crohn's disease. Clin Radiol 2002; 57:913.
  100. Potthast S, Rieber A, Von Tirpitz C, et al. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in Crohn's disease: a comparison. Eur Radiol 2002; 12:1416.
  101. Schmidt T, Reinshagen M, Brambs HJ, et al. [Comparison of conventional enteroclysis, intestinal ultrasound and MRI-enteroclysis for determining changes in the small intestine and complications in patients with Crohn's disease]. Z Gastroenterol 2003; 41:641.
  102. Parente F, Greco S, Molteni M, et al. Oral contrast enhanced bowel ultrasonography in the assessment of small intestine Crohn's disease. A prospective comparison with conventional ultrasound, x ray studies, and ileocolonoscopy. Gut 2004; 53:1652.
  103. Castiglione F, Mainenti PP, De Palma GD, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of small bowel Crohn's disease: direct comparison of bowel sonography and magnetic resonance enterography. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19:991.
  104. Pera A, Cammarota T, Comino E, et al. Ultrasonography in the detection of Crohn's disease and in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion 1988; 41:180.
  105. Maconi G, Di Sabatino A, Ardizzone S, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of sonographic detection of enlarged regional lymph nodes in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005; 40:1328.
  106. Maconi G, Sampietro GM, Russo A, et al. The vascularity of internal fistulae in Crohn's disease: an in vivo power Doppler ultrasonography assessment. Gut 2002; 50:496.
  107. Gasche C, Moser G, Turetschek K, et al. Transabdominal bowel sonography for the detection of intestinal complications in Crohn's disease. Gut 1999; 44:112.
  108. Orsoni P, Barthet M, Portier F, et al. Prospective comparison of endosonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in anorectal fistula and abscess complicating Crohn's disease. Br J Surg 1999; 86:360.
  109. Seitz K, Reuss J. [Sonographic detection of fistulas in Crohn disease]. Ultraschall Med 1986; 7:281.
  110. Hirche TO, Russler J, Schröder O, et al. The value of routinely performed ultrasonography in patients with Crohn disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37:1178.
  111. Guidi L, De Franco A, De Vitis I, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with SonoVue after infliximab therapy in Crohn's disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2006; 10:23.
  112. Dietrich CF, Lembcke B, Jenssen C, et al. Intestinal Ultrasound in Rare Gastrointestinal Diseases, Update, Part 2. Ultraschall Med 2015; 36:428.
  113. Dietrich CF, Lembcke B, Jenssen C, et al. Intestinal ultrasound in rare gastrointestinal diseases, update, part 1. Ultraschall Med 2014; 35:400.
  114. Petit P, Vidal V, Chaumoitre K, et al. [Atypical sonographic findings of bacterial colitis]. J Radiol 2000; 81:47.
  115. Matsumoto T, Iida M, Sakai T, et al. Yersinia terminal ileitis: sonographic findings in eight patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156:965.
  116. Puylaert JB. Mesenteric adenitis and acute terminal ileitis: US evaluation using graded compression. Radiology 1986; 161:691.
  117. Puylaert JB, Bodewes HW, Vermeijden RJ, et al. [Bacterial ileocecitis, a "new" disease]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1991; 135:2176.
  118. Quillin SP, Siegel MJ. Gastrointestinal inflammation in children: color Doppler ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 1994; 13:751.
  119. Gebert A, Göke M, Rothkötter HJ, Dietrich CF. [The mechanisms of antigen uptake in the small and large intestines: the roll of the M cells for the initiation of immune responses]. Z Gastroenterol 2000; 38:855.
  120. Khaw KT, Yeoman LJ, Saverymuttu SH, et al. Ultrasonic patterns in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Radiol 1991; 43:171.
  121. Mathis G, Metzler J. [Sonography in salmonella enterocolitis]. Ultraschall Med 1992; 13:106.
  122. Matsushita M, Suzaki T, Hajiro K. Intussusception associated with Salmonella typhimurium enterocolitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89:1246.
  123. Puylaert JB, Vermeijden RJ, van der Werf SD, et al. Incidence and sonographic diagnosis of bacterial ileocaecitis masquerading as appendicitis. Lancet 1989; 2:84.
  124. Seelen JL, Puylaert JB. [Bacterial ileocecitis: a "new" disease]. Ultraschall Med 1991; 12:269.
  125. Ueda D, Sato T, Yoshida M. Ultrasonographic assessment of Salmonella enterocolitis in children. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29:469.
  126. Puylaert JB, Lalisang RI, van der Werf SD, Doornbos L. Campylobacter ileocolitis mimicking acute appendicitis: differentiation with graded-compression US. Radiology 1988; 166:737.
  127. Coussi A, Athanassiou M, Tsantali C, et al. Yersinia enterocolitica mesenteric adenitis suspected by ultrasound examination. Eur J Pediatr 1994; 153:299.
  128. Janowitz P, Wechsler JG, Malfertheiner P, et al. [Yersinia enterocolitica infection with extraintestinal manifestations: case report and overview]. Z Gastroenterol 1994; 32:152.
  129. Barreiros AP, Braden B, Schieferstein-Knauer C, et al. Characteristics of intestinal tuberculosis in ultrasonographic techniques. Scand J Gastroenterol 2008; 43:1224.
  130. Hollerweger A, Macheiner P, Dirks K, Dietrich CF. [Differential diagnosis of severe hypoechoic oedema of the small bowel]. Ultraschall Med 2006; 27:234.
  131. Brüggemann A, Burchardt H, Lepsien G. Sonographical findings in Whipple's disease. A case report with regard to the literature. Surg Endosc 1992; 6:138.
  132. Carroccio A, Soresi M, Montalto G, et al. Whipple's disease: a non-invasive approach for suspected diagnosis. Case report. Ital J Gastroenterol 1996; 28:229.
  133. Castagnone D, Mandelli C, Rivolta R, et al. [Echography and computerized tomography of the abdomen in Whipple's disease]. Radiol Med 1991; 82:540.
  134. Davis SJ, Patel A. Distinctive echogenic lymphadenopathy in Whipples disease. Clin Radiol 1990; 42:60.
  135. de Wazières B, Fest T, Litzler JF, et al. [Mesenteric lymph node cavitations in Whipple's disease. Apropos of a case]. J Radiol 1993; 74:661.
  136. Hollerbach S, Holstege A, Muscholl M, et al. [Masked course of Whipple disease with uveitis, infection, endocardial involvement and abdominal lymphomas--case report and review of the literature]. Z Gastroenterol 1995; 33:362.
  137. Janisch HD, von Kleist D, Pfretzschner C, et al. [Mesenteric lipodystrophy: differential diagnosis of a benign abdominal tumor]. Wien Med Wochenschr 1984; 134:417.
  138. Hollerweger A, Dietrich CF. ["White bowel". A sonographic sign of intestinal lymph edema?]. Ultraschall Med 2005; 26:127.
  139. Bass D, Cordoba E, Dekker C, et al. Intestinal imaging of children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2004; 39:270.
  140. Robinson CG, Hernanz-Schulman M, Zhu Y, et al. Evaluation of anatomic changes in young children with natural rotavirus infection: is intussusception biologically plausible? J Infect Dis 2004; 189:1382.
  141. Gorschlüter M, Marklein G, Höfling K, et al. Abdominal infections in patients with acute leukaemia: a prospective study applying ultrasonography and microbiology. Br J Haematol 2002; 117:351.
  142. Tsujimoto T, Kuriyama S, Yoshiji H, et al. Ultrasonographic findings of amebic colitis. J Gastroenterol 2003; 38:82.
  143. Hussain S, Dinshaw H. Ultrasonography in amebic colitis. J Ultrasound Med 1990; 9:385.
  144. Bolondi L, Ferrentino M, Trevisani F, et al. Sonographic appearance of pseudomembranous colitis. J Ultrasound Med 1985; 4:489.
  145. Dietrich CF, Lembcke B, Seifert H, et al. [Ultrasound diagnosis of penicillin-induced segmental hemorrhagic colitis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2000; 125:755.
  146. Gebel M. [Ultrasound of the gastrointestinal tract: good educational background is required]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2000; 125:749.
  147. Ludolph T, Schmidt-Wilcke HA. [Ultrasound diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2000; 125:750.
  148. Oei TK, van Engelshoven JM. Pseudomembranous colitis: an ultrasound diagnosis. Eur J Radiol 1992; 15:154.
  149. Pieri L, Mazzeo S, Caramella D, et al. [Imaging diagnosis in pseudomembranous colitis]. Radiol Med 1994; 87:775.
  150. Ros PR, Buetow PC, Pantograg-Brown L, et al. Pseudomembranous colitis. Radiology 1996; 198:1.
  151. Thomas SM, Howlett DC, Hearn FJ. Ultrasound appearance of pseudomembranous colitis. Australas Radiol 1996; 40:162.
  152. Truong M, Atri M, Bret PM, et al. Sonographic appearance of benign and malignant conditions of the colon. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 170:1451.
  153. Zamora S, Coppes MJ, Scott RB, Mueller DL. Clostridium difficile, pseudomembranous enterocolitis: striking CT and sonographic features in a pediatric patient. Eur J Radiol 1996; 23:104.
  154. Dietrich CF, Zeuzem S, Caspary WF, Wehrmann T. [Ultrasound lymph node imaging in the abdomen and retroperitoneum of healthy probands]. Ultraschall Med 1998; 19:265.
  155. Downey DB, Wilson SR. Pseudomembranous colitis: sonographic features. Radiology 1991; 180:61.
  156. Matsumoto T, Iida M, Matsui T, et al. Ultrasonic and CT findings in penicillin-induced nonpseudomembranous colitis. Gastrointest Radiol 1990; 15:329.
  157. Alexander JE, Williamson SL, Seibert JJ, et al. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of typhlitis (neutropenic colitis). Pediatr Radiol 1988; 18:200.
  158. Glass-Royal MC, Choyke PL, Gootenberg JE, Grant EG. Sonography in the diagnosis of neutropenic colitis. J Ultrasound Med 1987; 6:671.
  159. Gootenberg JE, Abbondanzo SL. Rapid diagnosis of neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) by ultrasonography. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1987; 9:222.
  160. Klein SA, Hermann S, Dietrich JW, et al. Transplantation-related toxicity and acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease after conditioning regimens intensified with Rhenium 188-labeled anti-CD66 monoclonal antibodies. Blood 2002; 99:2270.
  161. Benya EC, Sivit CJ, Quinones RR. Abdominal complications after bone marrow transplantation in children: sonographic and CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993; 161:1023.
  162. Haber HP, Schlegel PG, Dette S, et al. Intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease: findings on sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 174:118.
  163. Mac Sweeney EJ, Oades PJ, Buchdahl R, et al. Relation of thickening of colon wall to pancreatic-enzyme treatment in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 1995; 345:752.
  164. Antonelli M, Matrunola M, Tontini A, Diamanti S. Colonic changes in cystic fibrosis: clinical-ultrasonographic features and their value for treatment. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 30:232.
  165. Connett GJ, Lucas JS, Atchley JT, et al. Colonic wall thickening is related to age and not dose of high strength pancreatin microspheres in children with cystic fibrosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 11:181.
  166. Haber HP, Benda N, Fitzke G, et al. Colonic wall thickness measured by ultrasound: striking differences in patients with cystic fibrosis versus healthy controls. Gut 1997; 40:406.
  167. Hahn H, von Kalle T, Pfadler E, et al. [Ultrasound appendix imaging in mucoviscidosis patients]. Rofo 1999; 170:181.
  168. Pohl M, Krackhardt B, Posselt HG, Lembcke B. Ultrasound studies of the intestinal wall in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997; 25:317.
  169. Ramsden WH, Moya EF, Littlewood JM. Colonic wall thickness, pancreatic enzyme dose and type of preparation in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1998; 79:339.
  170. Wilschanski M, Fisher D, Hadas-Halperin I, et al. Findings on routine abdominal ultrasonography in cystic fibrosis patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999; 28:182.
  171. Bargon J, Stein J, Dietrich CF, et al. [Gastrointestinal complications of adult patients with cystic fibrosis]. Z Gastroenterol 1999; 37:739.
  172. Quillin SP, Siegel MJ. Color Doppler US of children with acute lower abdominal pain. Radiographics 1993; 13:1281.
  173. Sianesi M, Rossi A, Miselli A, Farinon AM. Ultrasonic detection of colonic carcinoma in emergency. Dis Colon Rectum 1984; 27:168.
  174. Vignault F, Filiatrault D, Brandt ML, et al. Acute appendicitis in children: evaluation with US. Radiology 1990; 176:501.
  175. Lagalla R, Caruso G, Novara V, et al. Color Doppler ultrasonography in pediatric intussusception. J Ultrasound Med 1994; 13:171.
  176. Lam AH, Firman K. Value of sonography including color Doppler in the diagnosis and management of long standing intussusception. Pediatr Radiol 1992; 22:112.
  177. Lim HK, Bae SH, Lee KH, et al. Assessment of reducibility of ileocolic intussusception in children: usefulness of color Doppler sonography. Radiology 1994; 191:781.
  178. Patsikas MN, Papazoglou LG, Jakovljevic S, Dessiris AK. Color Doppler ultrasonography in prediction of the reducibility of intussuscepted bowel in 15 young dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2005; 46:313.
  179. Dietrich CF, Brunner V, Seifert H, et al. [Intestinal B-mode sonography in patients with endemic sprue. Intestinal sonography in endemic sprue]. Ultraschall Med 1999; 20:242.
  180. Rettenbacher T, Hollerweger A, Macheiner P, et al. Adult celiac disease: US signs. Radiology 1999; 211:389.
  181. Riccabona M, Rossipal E. Sonographic findings in celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1993; 17:198.
  182. Bozkurt T, Lux G. [Transabdominal ultrasonography in inflammatory and tumorous intestinal diseases]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1998; 123:128.
  183. Limberg B. Diagnosis and staging of colonic tumors by conventional abdominal sonography as compared with hydrocolonic sonography. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:65.
  184. Schwerk WB, Braun B. [The use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors (author's transl)]. Z Gastroenterol 1978; 16:431.
  185. Wood WJ, Archer R, Schaefer JW, et al. Coexistence of regional enteritis and carcinoid tumor. Gastroenterology 1970; 59:265.
  186. Goerg C, Schwerk WB, Goerg K. Gastrointestinal lymphoma: sonographic findings in 54 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1990; 155:795.
  187. Catalano O, De Lutio di Castelguidone E, Nunziata A, et al. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Pictorial review. Radiol Med 2005; 110:484.
  188. Dietrich CF, Jenssen C, Hocke M, et al. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumours with modern ultrasound techniques - a pictorial essay. Z Gastroenterol 2012; 50:457.
  189. Danse EM, Van Beers BE, Goffette P, et al. Acute intestinal ischemia due to occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery: detection with Doppler sonography. J Ultrasound Med 1996; 15:323.
  190. Erden A, Yurdakul M, Cumhur T. Marked increase in flow velocities during deep expiration: A duplex Doppler sign of celiac artery compression syndrome. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1999; 22:331.
  191. Geelkerken RH, van Bockel JH. Duplex ultrasound examination of splanchnic vessels in the assessment of splanchnic ischaemic symptoms. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1999; 18:371.
  192. Koslin DB, Mulligan SA, Berland LL. Duplex assessment of the splanchnic vasculature. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 1992; 13:34.
  193. Mirk P, Cotroneo AR, Palazzoni G, Bock E. [Doppler ultrasonography assessment of the inferior mesenteric artery. Feasibility study and definition of morphologic and flowmetric characteristics]. Radiol Med 1994; 87:275.
  194. Nicoloff AD, Williamson WK, Moneta GL, et al. Duplex ultrasonography in evaluation of splanchnic artery stenosis. Surg Clin North Am 1997; 77:339.
  195. Perko MJ, Just S, Schroeder TV. Importance of diastolic velocities in the detection of celiac and mesenteric artery disease by duplex ultrasound. J Vasc Surg 1997; 26:288.
  196. Zwolak RM, Fillinger MF, Walsh DB, et al. Mesenteric and celiac duplex scanning: a validation study. J Vasc Surg 1998; 27:1078.
  197. Danse EM, Van Beers BE, Jamart J, et al. Prognosis of ischemic colitis: comparison of color doppler sonography with early clinical and laboratory findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 175:1151.
  198. Gandhi SK, Hanson MM, Vernava AM, et al. Ischemic colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39:88.
  199. Ripollés T, Simó L, Martínez-Pérez MJ, et al. Sonographic findings in ischemic colitis in 58 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 184:777.
  200. Beyer D, Krug B, Stelzner M. [Gastrointestinal amyloidosis as a differential diagnostic problem]. Rofo 1986; 145:551.
  201. Watanabe T, Kato K, Sugitani M, et al. A case of solitary amyloidosis localized within the transverse colon presenting as a submucosal tumor. Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 49:644.
  202. Whitby EH, Peck RJ. Case report: ultrasound of primary generalised AL amyloid of the small bowel. Clin Radiol 1996; 51:447.
  203. Barreiros AP, Otto G, Ignee A, et al. Sonographic signs of amyloidosis. Z Gastroenterol 2009; 47:731.
  204. Creteur V, De Poerck AF, De Raedemaeker K, et al. [diagnostic ultrasonography of air in the portal venous system: apropos of a case of colonic radionecrosis and literature review]. J Belge Radiol 1994; 77:270.
  205. Nguyen BD, Hamper UM. Pelvic silicone prosthesis for prevention of radiation enteritis: US and CT features. Abdom Imaging 1997; 22:175.
  206. Puylaert JB, Hoekstra F, de Vries BC, et al. Radiation appendicitis: demonstration with graded compression US. Radiology 1987; 164:342.
  207. Shimizu S, Tada M, Kawai K. Endoscopic ultrasonography in inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 1995; 5:851.
  208. Solomon MJ, McLeod RS, Cohen EK, Cohen Z. Anal wall thickness under normal and inflammatory conditions of the anorectum as determined by endoluminal ultrasonography. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90:574.
  209. Bulger K, O'Riordan M, Purdy S, et al. Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis resembling Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83:1415.
  210. Clague RB. Sarcoidosis or Crohn's disease? Br Med J 1972; 3:804.
  211. Dumot JA, Adal K, Petras RE, Lashner BA. Sarcoidosis presenting as granulomatous colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93:1949.
  212. Ell SR, Frank PH. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Gastrointest Radiol 1981; 6:329.
  213. MacRury SM, McQuaker G, Morton R, Hume R. Sarcoidosis: association with small bowel disease and folate deficiency. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45:823.
  214. Dietrich CF, Braden B. Sonographic assessments of gastrointestinal and biliary functions. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2009; 23:353.
  215. Tefera S, Gilja OH, Olafsdottir E, et al. Intragastric maldistribution of a liquid meal in patients with reflux oesophagitis assessed by three dimensional ultrasonography. Gut 2002; 50:153.
  216. Gilja OH, Heimdal A, Hausken T, et al. Strain during gastric contractions can be measured using Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasound Med Biol 2002; 28:1457.
  217. Gubler C, Bauerfeind P, Vavricka SR, et al. Bedside sonographic control for positioning enteral feeding tubes: a controlled study in intensive care unit patients. Endoscopy 2006; 38:1256.
  218. Jenssen C, Dietrich CF. Endoscopic ultrasound of gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions. Ultraschall Med 2008; 29:236.
Topic Outline