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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 34

of 'Suppurative thyroiditis in children and adolescents'

Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
Teckie G, Bhana SA, Tsitsi JM, Shires R
Eur Thyroid J. 2014;3(1):65. Epub 2013 Dec 20.
Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH<0.01 mIU/l. Serum anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were absent. Computed tomography scan showed a large abscess in the anterior neck involving the left lobe and isthmus, as well as inhomogeneous changes in the right lobe of the thyroid. The radioisotopic scan showed absent uptake of tracer in keeping with thyroiditis. Although the initial presentation was that of hyperthyroidism, destruction of the gland later resulted in sustained hypothyroidism, necessitating thyroid hormone supplementation. The hyperthyroidism can be explained by the release of presynthesized and stored thyroid hormone into the circulation as a result of inflammation and disruption ofthe thyroid follicles, and the subsequent hypothyroidism by the fact that much of the gland was destroyed by the abscess and the extensive inflammatory process. This is the first documented case of hyperthyroidism in a patient with acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia.
Division of Endocrinology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.