Specific learning disabilities in children: Evaluation
- L Erik von Hahn, MD
L Erik von Hahn, MD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Tufts University School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD
Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD
- Section Editor — Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Neurology
- Professor of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Medical Genetics
- Chair, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Learning disabilities (LD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the unexpected failure of an individual to acquire, retrieve, and use information competently. They are the most severe, pervasive, and chronic form of learning difficulty in children with average or above-average intellectual abilities [1,2].
LD have a multifactorial etiology . They typically manifest as a failure to acquire reading, writing, or math skills at grade- and age-expected levels. Learning problems that are outside of these traditional core domains, such as memory problems, attention problems, and difficulty managing social interactions, are not typically considered to be LD. However, they may affect reading, writing, and math and may also require intervention.
The evaluation of children with LD will be presented here. The clinical features, management, and prognosis of LD and the role of the primary care provider are discussed separately. (See "Specific learning disabilities in children: Clinical features" and "Specific learning disabilities in children: Educational management" and "Specific learning disabilities in children: Role of the primary care provider".)
Educational definitions for LD and a review of special education law, which describes how students can access special education services in school settings, also are provided separately. (See "Definitions of specific learning disability and laws pertaining to learning disabilities in the United States".)
In this topic review, the term "learning disability" (or "specific learning disability") refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the unexpected failure of an individual to acquire, retrieve, and use information competently.
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- INITIAL PRESENTATION
- Parent concerns
- Teacher concerns
- Clinician concerns
- ROLE OF THE PRIMARY CARE PROVIDER
- EVALUATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LD IN SCHOOL SETTINGS
- COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION
- Diagnostic process
- Psychometric tests
- - Formulas used to identify LD
- - Limitations of psychometric measures
- Determination of service eligibility
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS