Spatial organization of intestinal microbiota in health and disease
- Alexander Swidsinski, MD
Alexander Swidsinski, MD
- Laboratory for Molecular Genetics,
- Polymicrobial Infections, and Bacterial Biofilms
- Humboldt University, Charité Hospital
- Vera Loening-Baucke, MD
Vera Loening-Baucke, MD
- Professor Emerita, Pediatrics
- The University of Iowa
The alimentary tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body. Within it exists a complex polymicrobial ecology that interacts with the internal and external environment and has an important influence on health and disease.
The properties of isolated microorganisms do not explain how the polymicrobial community functions or why its organisms can grow under conditions that should be deadly to them . An understanding of how microorganisms interact with each other, their host, and the luminal contents is expanding rapidly.
A major advance in understanding the function of the intestinal microbiota has been the development of techniques that permit a detailed assessment of the composition of the flora and its distribution throughout the alimentary tract. One of the methods to visualize single bacterial species within complex communities is called ribosomal RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Each bacterium possesses tens of thousands of ribosomes, each of which includes a copy of the bacterial RNA. Some of the regions of the ribosomal RNA are strain-specific, others are universal for groups, domains, or even kingdoms. Synthetically produced oligonucleotides that are complementary to sequences of interest can be labeled with fluorescent dye and added to samples containing bacteria. These oligonucleotides, called FISH probes, hybridize with RNA of bacterial ribosomes. Bacteria can be visualized with the microscope directly without additional enhancement because of the high number of ribosomes within each bacterium [2,3].
The names of the FISH probes described in this topic review are based on abbreviations of probeBase online resource for rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes .To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- EVOLUTION'S ROLE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA
- BACTERIA IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
- Stomach and duodenum
- Pancreatic tract
- Biliary tract
- - Gallstones
- Small intestine
- BACTERIA IN THE COLON
- The role of microbiota in colonic function
- Mucus barrier
- Biostructure of fecal microbiota
- DISRUPTION OF THE MUCUS BARRIER
- Unrecognized pathogens
- Substances that reduce the viscosity of the mucus barrier
- - Detergents
- - Emulsifiers
- - Other causes
- BIOSTRUCTURE OF FECAL MICROBIOTA IN HEALTH AND INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
- Nonspecific changes of the colonic microbial biostructure
- Changes of the colonic microbial biostructure in IBD
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS