Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus
- Myoung-don Oh, MD
Myoung-don Oh, MD
- Professor of Internal Medicine
- Seoul National University College of Medicine
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious zoonosis in China, Japan, and South Korea . The causative agent is commonly designated SFTS virus (SFTSV), a newly identified bunyavirus that appears to be carried by ticks (ie, Haemaphysalis longicornis).
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) is a new member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae [2-4]. The closest relative is Bhanja virus, a tickborne human pathogenic phlebovirus that causes febrile illness and meningitis . Bunyaviruses are largely spherical, enveloped particles with a diameter of 80 to 120 nm. Particles carry three genomic segments designated large (L), medium (M), and small (S).
The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), the M segment the glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and the S segment the nucleoprotein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs) using an ambisense coding strategy . The N protein encapsulates the genomic RNA; this complex is further associated with the L protein and forms the active transcriptase/replicase complex. The Gn and Gc glycoproteins form a heterodimer and shape the spikes on the surface of the virion. The glycoproteins mediate receptor binding and virus entry and are the target for neutralizing humoral immune responses .
The C-type lectin, DC-SIGN, has been identified as one of the factors for SFTSV attachment and entry into cells . The NSs protein serves as a type-I interferon antagonist that suppresses activation of innate immune responses via the IPS-1/IRF-3 and NF-kappaB pathways.
SFTSV has been classified into Chinese and Japanese lineages, consistent with the geographical distribution; the two lineages are further divided into six and four sub-lineages, respectively . The SFTSV strains isolated in South Korea are clustered in the Japanese lineage .To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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