Scrotal trauma in children and adolescents
- Catherine E Perron, MD
Catherine E Perron, MD
- Assistant Clinical Professor in Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editor
- Susan B Torrey, MD
Susan B Torrey, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Resuscitation; Pediatric Trauma
- Director, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics (Clinical)
- NYU School of Medicine
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
The evaluation and management of scrotal trauma in children will be discussed here.
Blunt genitourinary trauma, straddle injuries, and the medical causes of scrotal pain and its evaluation in children and adolescents are discussed separately.
- Widni EE, Höllwarth ME, Saxena AK. Analysis of nonsexual injuries of the male genitals in children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr 2011; 100:590.
- Chandra RV, Dowling RJ, Ulubasoglu M, et al. Rational approach to diagnosis and management of blunt scrotal trauma. Urology 2007; 70:230.
- Bertozzi M, Prestipino M, Nardi N, et al. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature. Urology 2009; 74:595.
- O'Brien M, Hutton KA. Minimally invasive retrieval of a foreign body after penetrating soft tissue injury. J Trauma 2005; 59:754.
- Phonsombat S, Master VA, McAninch JW. Penetrating external genital trauma: a 30-year single institution experience. J Urol 2008; 180:192.
- Najibi S, Tannast M, Latini JM. Civilian gunshot wounds to the genitourinary tract: incidence, anatomic distribution, associated injuries, and outcomes. Urology 2010; 76:977.
- Simhan J, Rothman J, Canter D, et al. Gunshot wounds to the scrotum: a large single-institutional 20-year experience. BJU Int 2012; 109:1704.
- Ko SF, Ng SH, Wan YL, et al. Testicular dislocation: an uncommon and easily overlooked complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 43:371.
- Hobbs CJ, Osman J. Genital injuries in boys and abuse. Arch Dis Child 2007; 92:328.
- Culty T, Ravery V. [Scrotal trauma: management strategy]. Ann Urol (Paris) 2006; 40:117.
- Paparel P, Badet L, Voiglio E, et al. [Does scrotal blunt trauma require surgical treatment?]. Prog Urol 2003; 13:564.
- Bhatt S, Dogra VS. Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma. Radiographics 2008; 28:1617.
- Jankowski JT, Spirnak JP. Current recommendations for imaging in the management of urologic traumas. Urol Clin North Am 2006; 33:365.
- Guichard G, El Ammari J, Del Coro C, et al. Accuracy of ultrasonography in diagnosis of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Urology 2008; 71:52.
- Kim SH, Park S, Choi SH, et al. Significant predictors for determination of testicular rupture on sonography: a prospective study. J Ultrasound Med 2007; 26:1649.
- Deurdulian C, Mittelstaedt CA, Chong WK, Fielding JR. US of acute scrotal trauma: optimal technique, imaging findings, and management. Radiographics 2007; 27:357.
- Buckley JC, McAninch JW. Use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of testicular injuries in blunt scrotal trauma. J Urol 2006; 175:175.
- Matzek BA, Linklater DR. Traumatic testicular dislocation after minor trauma in a pediatric patient. J Emerg Med 2013; 45:537.
- Kerins M, Greene S, O'Connor N. A human bite to the scrotum: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Emerg Med 2004; 11:223.
- Moran GJ, Talan DA, Abrahamian FM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for wounds and procedures in the emergency department. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2008; 22:117.
- Hooker KD, DiPiro JT, Wynn JJ. Aminoglycoside combinations versus beta-lactams alone for penetrating abdominal trauma: a meta-analysis. J Trauma 1991; 31:1155.
- Morey AF, Metro MJ, Carney KJ, et al. Consensus on genitourinary trauma: external genitalia. BJU Int 2004; 94:507.
- Gross M. Rupture of the testicle: the importance of early surgical treatment. J Urol 1969; 101:196.
- Altarac S. Management of 53 cases of testicular trauma. Eur Urol 1994; 25:119.
- Cubillos J, Reda EF, Gitlin J, et al. A conservative approach to testicular rupture in adolescent boys. J Urol 2010; 184:1733.
- Cass AS, Luxenberg M. Testicular injuries. Urology 1991; 37:528.
- Adams RJ, Attia M, Cronan K. Report of 4 cases of testicular rupture in adolescent boys secondary to sports-related trauma. Pediatr Emerg Care 2008; 24:847.
- Scrotal anatomy
- - Injury patterns
- Adjacent structures
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Physical examination
- Ancillary studies
- INDICATIONS FOR SUBSPECIALTY CONSULTATION OR REFERRAL
- Stabilization and initial management
- Antibiotic prophylaxis for scrotal wounds
- Child protection
- Definitive care
- - Blunt scrotal trauma
- - Penetrating trauma
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS