Medline ® Abstracts for References 14-16
of 'Screening for depression in adults'
The Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study: initial catalog of health-state quality factors.
Fryback DG, Dasbach EJ, Klein R, Klein BE, Dorn N, Peterson K, Martin PA
Med Decis Making. 1993 Apr;13(2):89-102.
The Beaver Dam Health Outcomes Study (BDHOS) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of health status and health-related quality of life for a random sample of adults (age range at interview was 45 to 89 years; mean = 64.1, SD = 10.8) in a community population. In a face-to-face interview lasting approximately an hour, each participant responds to several batteries of questions. Included are a history of chronic medical conditions, current medications, and past surgeries; the SF-36 (a general health-status questionnaire); the Quality of Well-being index; self-rated health status on a five-point scale from "excellent" to "poor"; and evaluation of current health using the method of time tradeoffs. The authors present results from 1,356 interviews on these four principal measures, reporting mean scores by sex, by age, and for persons reporting being affected by various medical conditions. They believe data from the BDHOS will provide researchers and policy makers a reference collection of vital statistics for health-related quality of life. Additionally, the data provide a way to compare results from studies that utilize different indices from among the four principal measures of the BDHOS.
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706.
Cost-effectiveness of treatments for major depression in primary care practice.
Lave JR, Frank RG, Schulberg HC, Kamlet MS
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jul;55(7):645-51.
BACKGROUND: This study augments a randomized controlled trial to analyze the cost-effectiveness of 2 standardized treatments for major depression relative to each other and to the "usual care" provided by primary care physicians.
METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which primary care patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for current major depression were assigned to pharmacotherapy (where nortriptyline hydrochloride was given) or interpersonal psychotherapy provided in a standardized framework or a primary physician's usual care. Two outcome measures, depression-free days and quality-adjusted days, were developed using information on depressive symptoms over time. The costs of care were calculated. Cost-effectiveness ratios comparing the incremental outcomes with the incremental costs for the different treatments were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed.
RESULTS: In terms of both economic costs and quality-of-life outcomes, patients assigned to the pharmacotherapy group did slightly better than those assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy. Both standardized therapies provided better outcomes than primary physician's usual care, but each consumed more resources. No meaningful cost-offsets were found. The incremental direct cost per additional depression-free day for pharmacotherapy relative to usual care ranges from $12.66 to $16.87 which translates to direct cost per quality-adjusted year gained from $11270 to $19510.
CONCLUSIONS: Standardized treatments for depression lead to better outcomes than usual care but also lead to higher costs. However, the estimates of the cost per quality-of-life year gained for standardized pharmacotherapy are comparable with those found for other treatments provided in routine practice.
Department of Health Care Services Administration, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Lave@pop.pitt.edu
Depressive symptoms and the cost of health services in HMO patients aged 65 years and older. A 4-year prospective study.
Unützer J, Patrick DL, Simon G, Grembowski D, Walker E, Rutter C, Katon W
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether depressive symptoms in older adults contribute to increased cost of general medical services.
DESIGN: A 4-year prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Four primary care clinics of a large staff-model health maintenance organization (HMO) in Seattle, Wash.
PATIENTS: A total of 5012 Medicare enrollees older than 65 years were invited to participate in the study; 2558 subjects (51%) were successfully enrolled. Non-participants were somewhat older and had a higher level of chronic medical illness.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, which was administered as part of a mail survey at baseline, at 2 years, and at 4 years; and total cost of medical services from the perspective of the HMO. Data were obtained from the cost accounting system of the HMO.
RESULTS: In this cohort of older adults, depressive symptoms were common, persistent, and associated with a significant increase in the cost of general medical services. This increase was seen for every component of health care costs and was not accounted for by an increase in specialty mental health care. The increase in health care costs remained significant after adjusting for differences in age, sex, and chronic medical illness.
CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms in older adults are associated with a significant increase in the cost of medical services, even after adjusting for the severity of chronic medical illness.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA. email@example.com