Schizotypal personality disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, and diagnosis
- Daniel R Rosell, MD, PhD
Daniel R Rosell, MD, PhD
- Assistant Professor of Psychiatry
- Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Schizotypal personality disorder is a chronic disorder with manifestations beginning in childhood and adolescence. Phenomenologic characteristics of the disorder include cognitive-perceptual problems (such as magical thinking or paranoia), oddness or disorganization, and interpersonal problems such as social anxiety and a lack of close friends.
Schizotypal personality disorder is under-recognized and understudied. Its lifetime prevalence in the general United States population has been estimated at just under 4 percent. The disorder is associated with significant disability, as well as a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. Schizotypal personality disorder is challenging to treat.
This topic reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, and diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder. Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder is reviewed separately. The clinical presentation and treatment of other personality disorders are also reviewed separately. Establishing and maintaining a therapeutic relationship in patients with personality disorders are also reviewed separately. (See "Borderline personality disorder: Epidemiology, clinical features, course, assessment, and diagnosis" and "Treatment of borderline personality disorder" and "Antisocial personality disorder: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, course and diagnosis" and "Treatment of antisocial personality disorder" and "Narcissistic personality disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis" and "Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder" and "Personality disorders" and "Approaches to the therapeutic relationship in patients with personality disorders".)
Not studied as extensively as many mental disorders, estimates of the prevalence of schizotypal personality disorder have ranged from less than 1 percent to nearly 4 percent:
●Based on face-to-face interviews of a nationally representative sample of 34,653 adults, the United States National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Disorders (NESARC) estimated the lifetime prevalence of schizotypal personality disorder to be 3.9 percent (4.2 percent in men and 3.7 percent women) .
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