- Kevin deWeber, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
Kevin deWeber, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
- Family Medicine of SW Washington Residency
- PeaceHealth SW Medical Center
- Affiliate Associate Professor of Family Medicine
- Oregon Health and Science University
- Clinical Instructor of Family Medicine
- University of Washington School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Patrice Eiff, MD
Patrice Eiff, MD
- Section Editor — Adult Orthopedics; Sports-Related Injuries
- Professor of Family Medicine
- Oregon Health & Science University
- Chad A Asplund, MD, FACSM, MPH
Chad A Asplund, MD, FACSM, MPH
- Associate Professor of Health and Kinesiology
- Director of Athletic Medicine
- Head Team Physician
- Georgia Southern University
- Deputy Editor
- Jonathan Grayzel, MD, FAAEM
Jonathan Grayzel, MD, FAAEM
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Emergency Medicine (Adult and Pediatric)
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine
- University of Massachusetts Medical School
Scaphoid fractures are among the most common upper extremity injuries. They frequently occur following a fall onto an outstretched hand. Plain radiographs taken soon after the injury may not reveal a fracture, but the clinician should assume one is present until definitive proof otherwise is obtained.
This topic will review the diagnosis and nonoperative management of scaphoid (navicular) fractures in adults. An overview of carpal fractures and distal radius fractures and discussions of how to evaluate wrist or thumb pain in adults are presented separately. (See "Overview of carpal fractures" and "Evaluation of the adult with acute wrist pain" and "Evaluation of the adult with subacute or chronic wrist pain" and "Evaluation of the patient with thumb pain" and "Distal radius fractures in adults" and "Anatomy and basic biomechanics of the wrist".)
Carpal fractures account for approximately 5 percent of all fractures and 18 percent of hand fractures, and scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fracture [1-3]. Scaphoid fractures account for 10 percent of all hand fractures and 60 to 70 percent of all carpal fractures [1,4].
A study of scaphoid fractures in the military showed an unadjusted incidence of 1.21/1000 person-years. In addition, males and whites had a higher relative risk, and 20 to 24 year olds had the highest incidence at 1.64/1000 person-years . According to data from the United States National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, the estimated incidence in the population at large is 1.47 fractures/100,000 person-years .
The anatomy and biomechanics of the wrist are discussed in detail separately; anatomy of particular relevance to scaphoid injury is reviewed here. (See "Anatomy and basic biomechanics of the wrist".)To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- CLINICAL ANATOMY
- MECHANISM OF INJURY
- SYMPTOMS AND EXAMINATION FINDINGS
- DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
- MANAGEMENT OF SUSPECTED ACUTE FRACTURE WITH NEGATIVE PLAIN RADIOGRAPHS
- Approach to imaging and diagnosis
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Radionuclide bone scan
- Computed tomography
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- INDICATIONS FOR SURGICAL REFERRAL
- IMMOBILIZATION (CASTING) AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT
- Initial treatment
- Casting recommendations
- FOLLOW-UP CARE
- RETURN TO SPORT OR WORK
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS