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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,2

of 'Rising serum PSA after treatment for localized prostate cancer: Systemic therapy'

Management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment of prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature.
Punnen S, Cooperberg MR, D'Amico AV, Karakiewicz PI, Moul JW, Scher HI, Schlomm T, Freedland SJ
Eur Urol. 2013 Dec;64(6):905-15. Epub 2013 May 16.
CONTEXT: Despite excellent cancer control with the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa), some men will experience a recurrence of disease. The optimal management of recurrent disease remains uncertain.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review recent literature regarding management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment for localized PCa.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed from 2000 to 2012 to identify articles pertaining to management after recurrent PCa. Search terms included prostate cancer recurrence, salvage therapy, radiorecurrent prostate cancer, post HIFU, post cryoablation, postradiation, and postprostatectomy salvage. Studies were selected according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and required to provide a comprehensive description of primary and secondary treatments along with outcomes.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The data from 32 original publications were reviewed. The most common option for local salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP) was radiation. Options for local salvage therapy after primary radiation included RP, brachytherapy, and cryotherapy. Different definitions of recurrence and risk profiles among patients make comparative assessment among salvage treatment modalities difficult. Triggers for intervention and factors predicting response to salvage therapy vary.
CONCLUSIONS: Radiation therapy (RT) after RP can provide durable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses in a sizeable percentage of men, especially when given early (ie, PSA<1 ng/ml). Though a few studies suggest improvements in mortality, prospective randomized trials are needed and underway. The role of salvage treatment after RT is less clear.
Department of Urology, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Assessing the Optimal Timing for Early Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen Rise After Radical Prostatectomy.
Fossati N, Karnes RJ, Cozzarini C, Fiorino C, Gandaglia G, Joniau S, Boorjian SA, Goldner G, Hinkelbein W, Haustermans K, Tombal B, Shariat S, Karakiewicz PI, Montorsi F, Van Poppel H, Wiegel T, Briganti A
Eur Urol. 2016;69(4):728. Epub 2015 Oct 21.
BACKGROUND: Early salvage radiation therapy (eSRT) represents a treatment option for patients who experience a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, the optimal PSA level for eSRT administration is still unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of PSA level on cancer control after eSRT according to pathologic tumour characteristics.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 716 node-negative patients with undetectable postoperative PSA who experienced a PSA rise after RP. All patients received eSRT, defined as local radiation to the prostate and seminal vesicle bed, delivered at PSA≤0.5 ng/ml. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) after eSRT was defined as two consecutive PSA values≥0.2 ng/ml.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariable Cox regression analysis tested the association between pre-eSRT PSA level and BCR after eSRT. Covariates consisted of pathologic stage (pT2 vs pT3a vs pT3b or higher), pathologic Gleason score (≤6, 7, or≥8), and surgical margin status (negative vs positive). We tested an interaction with PSA level and baseline pathologic risk for the hypothesis that BCR-free survival differed by pre-eSRT PSA level. Three pathologic risk factors were identified: pathologic stage pT3b or higher, pathologic Gleason score≥8, and negative surgical margins.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median follow-up among patients who did not experience BCR after eSRT was 57 mo (interquartile range: 27-105). At 5 yr after eSRT, BCR-free survival rate was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78-85). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, pre-eSRT PSA level was significantly associated with BCR after eSRT (hazard ratio: 4.89; 95% CI, 1.40-22.9; p<0.0001). When patients were stratified according to the number of risk factors at final pathology, patients with at least two pathologic risk factors showed an increased risk of 5-yr BCR as high as 10% per 0.1 ng/ml of PSA level compared with only 1.5% in patients with one or no pathologic risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, cancer control after eSRT greatly depended on pretreatment PSA. The absolute PSA level had a different prognostic value depending on the pathologic characteristics of the tumour. In patients with more adverse pathologic features, eSRT conferred better cancer control when administered at the very first sign of PSA rise. Conversely, the benefit of eSRT was less evident in men with favourable disease at RP.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this retrospective study, cancer control after early salvage radiation therapy (eSRT) was influenced by pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. This effect was highest in men with at least two of the following pathologic features: pT3b/pT4 disease, pathologic Gleason score≥8, and negative surgical margins. In these patients, eSRT conferred better cancer control when administered at the very first sign of PSA rise.
Division of Oncology/Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: nicola.fossati@gmail.com.