Reproductive and sexual dysfunction in uremic women
- Biff F Palmer, MD
Biff F Palmer, MD
- Professor of Internal Medicine
- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
- William L Henrich, MD, MACP
William L Henrich, MD, MACP
- Professor of Medicine
- President of the Health Science Center
- University of Texas Health Science Center School of Medicine
- Peter J Snyder, MD
Peter J Snyder, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Endocrinology
- Section Editor — Pituitary Disease; Male Reproductive Endocrinology
- Professor of Medicine
- University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Disturbances in menstruation, fertility, and sexual dysfunction are common among women with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypogonadism may result in anovulation, infertility, or oligomenorrhea .
The menstrual cycle typically remains irregular, with scanty flow, after the initiation of maintenance dialysis, although normal menses are restored in some women [2-6]. In others, menorrhagia develops, sometimes leading to significant blood loss and increased transfusion requirements.
Sexual dysfunction is also common [7-11].
Although rare, pregnancy can occur in women with advanced renal failure, but fetal wastage is markedly increased . Some residual renal function is usually present in the infrequent pregnancy that can be carried to term. (See "Pregnancy in women with underlying renal disease".)
NORMAL MENSTRUAL CYCLE
The normal menstrual cycle is divided into a follicular or proliferative phase and a luteal or secretory phase. During the follicular phase, gradually increasing secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) causes recruitment and maturation of a single ovum and increasing secretion of estradiol. When the estradiol concentration reaches a sufficiently high level, it stimulates a sudden increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, thereby causing the release of a mature ovum, called ovulation. LH then stimulates the remainder of the follicle, called the corpus luteum, to secrete both estradiol and progesterone. (See "Physiology of the normal menstrual cycle".)To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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