Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-3
of 'Renal disease in the setting of infective endocarditis or an infected ventriculoatrial shunt'
Glomerulonephritis in bacterial endocarditis.
Neugarten J, Baldwin DS
Am J Med. 1984;77(2):297.
The introduction of antibiotic therapy and changing epidemiologic patterns have altered the nature of glomerulonephritis as it occurs during the course of bacterial endocarditis. Observations made predominantly in the pre-antibiotic era suggested that infections with less virulent organisms, by virtue of their indolent subacute course, favored an antibody response predisposing to immune complex glomerulonephritis. Although antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy have reduced the incidence of both Streptococcus viridans bacterial endocarditis and concomitant glomerulonephritis, Staphylococcus aureus has become a major cause of acute bacterial endocarditis with a high incidence of glomerulonephritis. Parenteral drug abuse itself, which has emerged as a major factor predisposing to endocarditis, may also favor the development of glomerulonephritis. The course of glomerulonephritis has been altered in association with these changes in etiology and epidemiology. This review summarizes the clinical and morphologic features of glomerulonephritis as it currently occurs during the course of bacterial endocarditis.
Rose, BD. Pathophysiology of Renal Disease, 2nd ed, McGraw-Hill, New York City 1987. p.229.
no abstract available
Renal pathological findings in infective endocarditis.
Majumdar A, Chowdhary S, Ferreira MA, Hammond LA, Howie AJ, Lipkin GW, Littler WA
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15(11):1782.
BACKGROUND: Accounts of renal pathological findings in infective endocarditis are mostly based on studies from many years ago. We reviewed a group of patients with infective endocarditis in the light of modern concepts of renal pathology, including the largest reported series of renal biopsies in this condition.
METHODS: Renal tissue was available for retrospective study from 62 patients with confirmed infective endocarditis out of 354 diagnosed with the disease between 1981 and 1998 inclusive. Twenty patients had a renal biopsy and 42 a necropsy.
RESULTS: Common renal lesions noted were localized infarcts in 31%, noted only in necropsy material, and acute glomerulonephritis in 26%, noted in biopsy and necropsy material. The commonest type of glomerulonephritis was vasculitic, without deposition of immunoproteins in glomeruli. Of the renal infarcts over half were due to septic emboli, mostly in patients infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Acute interstitial nephritis was found in 10% but was more common in biopsy material and seemed attributable to antibiotics. Renal cortical necrosis found in 10% was apparentonly at necropsy. There were various other findings in the kidney.
CONCLUSIONS: The kidneys are commonly affected in infective endocarditis by a variety of complications of clinical significance. The commonest type of glomerulonephritis does not appear to be attributable to deposition of immune complexes. A renal biopsy may be helpful in the investigation of renal impairment in a patient with infective endocarditis.
Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.