Medline ® Abstracts for References 4,5
of 'Rare complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)'
Major early complications from diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.
Loperfido S, Angelini G, Benedetti G, Chilovi F, Costan F, De Berardinis F, De Bernardin M, Ederle A, Fina P, Fratton A
Gastrointest Endosc. 1998;48(1):1.
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of multicenter prospective studies on complications of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
METHODS: We studied 2769 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP at nine centers in the Triveneto region of Italy over a 2-year period. Six centers performed ERCP on less than 200 patients per year (small centers). General and ERCP-specific major complications were predefined. Data were collected at the time of ERCP, before discharge, and in cases of readmission within 30 days. ERCP was defined as therapeutic when endoscopic sphincterotomy (n = 1583), precut (n = 419), or drainage (n = 701) had been carried out, singularly or in combination.
RESULTS: One hundred eleven major complications (4.0%) were recorded: moderate-severe pancreatitis 36 (1.3%), cholangitis 24 (0.87%), hemorrhage 21 (0.76%), duodenal perforation 16 (0.58%), others 14 (0.51%). Among 942 diagnostic ERCPs there were 13 major complications (1.38%) and 2 deaths (0.21%), whereas among 1827 therapeutic ERCPs there were 98 major complications (5.4%) and 9 deaths (0.49%). The difference in the incidence of complications between diagnostic and therapeutic ERCPs was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Small center and precut were recognized as independent risk factors for overall major complications of therapeutic ERCP, whereas the following risk factors were identified in relation to specific complications: (1) pancreatitis: age less than 70 years, pancreatic duct opacification, and nondilated common bile duct; (2) cholangitis: small center, jaundice; (3) hemorrhage: small center; and (4) retroperitoneal duodenal perforation: precut, intramural injection of contrast medium, and Billroth II gastrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: Major complications are mostly associated with therapeutic procedures and low case volume. Present data support a policy of centralization of ERCP in referral centers. A more selected and safer use of precut may be expected to further limit the adverse events of ERCP.
S.I.E.D. (Italian Society for Digestive Endoscopy) Triveneto Study Group on ERCP Complications: Ospedali di Treviso, Italy.
Complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.
Masci E, Toti G, Mariani A, Curioni S, Lomazzi A, Dinelli M, Minoli G, Crosta C, Comin U, Fertitta A, Prada A, Passoni GR, Testoni PA
Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(2):417.
OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP/ES) can be associated with unforeseeable complications, especially when involving postprocedural pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for complications of ERCP/ES in a prospective multicentric study.
METHODS: One hundred fifty variables were prospectively collected at time of ERCP/ES and before hospital discharge over 2 years, in consecutive patients undergoing the procedure in nine endoscopic units in the Lombardy region of Italy. More than 150 ERCPs were performed in each center per year by a single operator or by a team of no more than three endoscopists.
RESULTS: Two thousand four hundred sixty-two procedures were performed; 18 patients were discharged because the papilla of Vater was not reached (duodenal obstruction, previous gastrectomy, etc.). Two thousand four hundred forty-four procedures were considered in 2103 patients. Overall complications occurred in 121 patients (4.95% of cases): pancreatitis in 44 patients (1.8%), hemorrhage in 30 (1.13%),cholangitis in 14 (0.57%), perforation during ES in 14 (0.57%), and others in 14 (0.57%); deaths occurred in three patients (0.12%). In multivariate analysis, the following were significant risk factors: a) for pancreatitis, age (<or = 60 yr), use of precutting technique, and failed clearing of biliary stones, and b) for hemorrhage, precut sphincterotomy and obstruction of the orifice of the papilla of Vater.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study further contribute to the assessment of risk factors for complications related to ERCP/ES. It is crucial to identify high risk patients to reduce complications of the procedures.
Gastroenterology and Endoscopic Unit, S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.