Pulmonary hypertension in children: Classification, evaluation, and diagnosis
- Mary P Mullen, MD, PhD
Mary P Mullen, MD, PhD
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Thomas Kulik, MD
Thomas Kulik, MD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
- Senior Associate in Cardiology, Boston Children’s Hospital
- Section Editors
- David R Fulton, MD
David R Fulton, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Cardiology
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- George B Mallory, MD
George B Mallory, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Pulmonology
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, which can result in right ventricular failure. In children, PH is most commonly associated with underlying cardiac or lung disease (eg, bronchopulmonary dysplasia). PH may also be idiopathic or familial. Other causes of PH are rare in childhood (table 1). PH can be associated with considerable risk of morbidity and mortality. Management of children with PH requires a multidisciplinary team with experience and expertise in this area.
The classification, evaluation, and diagnosis of PH in children are reviewed here. Management and prognosis of PH in children is reviewed separately. (See "Pulmonary hypertension in children: Management and prognosis".)
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, the pathogenesis of PH, and PH in adults (including adults with congenital heart disease), and Eisenmenger syndrome are reviewed separately:To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
- Etiologic classification
- Transient versus persistent/progressive
- Functional classification
- COMMON TYPES OF PH IN CHILDREN
- Congenital heart disease
- Lung disease
- Idiopathic/heritable PH
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- History and physical examination
- Electrocardiography (ECG)
- BNP and NT-proBNP
- Chest radiograph (CXR)
- Cardiac catheterization
- Additional testing
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS