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Pulmonary hypertension in children: Classification, evaluation, and diagnosis

Mary P Mullen, MD, PhD
Thomas Kulik, MD
Section Editors
David R Fulton, MD
George B Mallory, MD
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, which can result in right ventricular failure. In children, PH is most commonly associated with underlying cardiac or lung disease (eg, bronchopulmonary dysplasia). PH may also be idiopathic or familial. Other causes of PH are rare in childhood (table 1). PH can be associated with considerable risk of morbidity and mortality. Management of children with PH requires a multidisciplinary team with experience and expertise in this area.

The classification, evaluation, and diagnosis of PH in children are reviewed here. Management and prognosis of PH in children is reviewed separately. (See "Pulmonary hypertension in children: Management and prognosis".)

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, the pathogenesis of PH, and PH in adults (including adults with congenital heart disease), and Eisenmenger syndrome are reviewed separately:

(See "Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn".)

(See "The epidemiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1)".)

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Sep 26, 2017.
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