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Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adults with hematologic malignancies

John R Wingard, MD
Section Editor
Carol A Kauffman, MD
Deputy Editor
Anna R Thorner, MD


Invasive fungal infections are common in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies, such as patients with acute leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, and cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The risk for invasive fungal infections increases with the duration and severity of neutropenia, prolonged antibiotic use, and number of chemotherapy cycles.

Interest in antifungal prophylaxis for high-risk patients receiving chemotherapy has been prompted by the rising incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections among cancer patients [1], the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis early in the course of infection, and the recognition that treatment outcomes are poor if initiation of therapy is delayed.

The epidemiology and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies will be discussed here. The epidemiology and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients are reviewed elsewhere. (See "Prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients".)

Other important issues related to infections in patients with hematologic malignancies are discussed separately:

(See "Overview of neutropenic fever syndromes".)

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Oct 09, 2017.
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