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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 84

of 'Prevention of HIV transmission during breastfeeding in resource-limited settings'

Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of women in Botswana receiving antiretroviral treatment.
Shapiro RL, Holland DT, Capparelli E, Lockman S, Thior I, Wester C, Stevens L, Peter T, Essex M, Connor JD, Mirochnick M
J Infect Dis. 2005;192(5):720. Epub 2005 Jul 27.
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of infant antiretroviral (ARV) exposure from breast milk is unknown.
METHODS: We measured concentrations of nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine in serum and whole breast milk from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women in Botswana receiving ARV treatment and serum from their uninfected, breast-feeding infants.
RESULTS: Twenty mother-infant pairs were enrolled. Maternal serum concentrations of nevirapine were high (median, 9534 ng/mL at a median of 4 h after nevirapine ingestion). Median breast-milk concentrations of nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine were 0.67, 3.34, and 3.21 times, respectively, those in maternal serum. The median infant serum concentration of nevirapine was 971 ng/mL, at least 40 times the 50% inhibitory concentration and similar to peak concentrations after a single 2-mg/kg dose of nevirapine. The median infant serum concentration of lamivudine was 28 ng/mL, and the median infant serum concentration of zidovudine was 123 ng/mL, but infants were also receiving zidovudine prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 inhibitory concentrations of nevirapine are achieved in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving these ARVs, exposing infants to the potential for beneficial and adverse effects of nevirapine ingestion. Further study is needed to understand the impact of maternal ARV treatment on breast-feeding HIV-1 transmission, infant toxicity, and HIV-1 resistance mutations among infected infants.
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, and Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. rshapiro@bidmc.harvard.edu