Medline ® Abstract for Reference 88
of 'Post-ERCP perforation'
[Diagnosis and management of duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography: clinical analysis of 15 cases].
Yang JF, Zhang X, Zhang XF
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;15(7):682.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience with duodenal perforations to determine a systematic management approach.
METHODS: A total of 11 250 patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) in The First People's Hospital of Hangzhou from January 2005 to December 2011 and 15(0.13%) patients developed duodenal perforation. The clinical data of these 15 cases were analyzed.
RESULTS: There were 6 males and 9 females. The age ranged from 45 to 87 years. Seven patients developed perforation after sphincterotomy of the duodenal papilla. Five patients perforated due to the endoscope, and 3 due to guide wire and net basket. All the patients presented varying degree of abdominal pain and distention. CT scan of the upper abdomen showed peripancreatic and retroperitoneal air or fluid. Diagnosis was confirmed in 7 patients using abdominal X-ray. Eight patients developed postoperative abdominal pain and distention, subcutaneous emphysema, and fever 3 hours to 5 days after surgery, and diagnosis was confirmed using plain abdominal X-ray or upper abdominal CT scan. Nine patients were managed conservatively, 4 of whom were diagnosed within 3 hours after perforation and were managed by endoscopic metal clip and nasobiliary drainage and no abdominal abscesses developed. The length of hospital stay ranged from 10 to 15 days. Five patients were diagnosed 10 hour to 5 days after perforation, of whom 2 had intestinal fistula, 4 had abscess, and one died, the length of hospital stay ranged from 15 to 105 days. Six patients were managed surgically, 4 received surgery within 4 to 8 hours after perforation and no abscess developed, and the length of hospital stay ranged from 18 to 21 days. The other 2 patients were operated at 24 hours and 30 hours after perforation respectively, one of whom had recurrent intra-abdominal bleeding after surgery and one died from intra-abdominal abscess and multiple organ failure.
CONCLUSIONS: For duodenal perforations related to ERCP, early diagnosis can be made by prompt intraoperative identification and postoperative CT scan. Endoscopic metal clip and nasobiliary drainage should be considered aside from surgical intervention.
Department of Gastroenterology, The First People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, China.