Medline ® Abstract for Reference 47
of 'Post-ERCP perforation'
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforation: Management and prevention.
Prachayakul V, Aswakul P
World J Clin Cases. 2014 Oct;2(10):522-7.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure that can result in serious complications, and thus should be handled by a skilled endoscopist to minimize the risk of complications and to enhance the success rate. The incidence of ERCP-related complications is 5%-10%, most commonly involving post-ERCP pancreatitis and clinically significant post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. Although ERCP-related perforation has a relatively lower incidence of 0.14%-1.6%, this complication is associated with a high mortality rate of 4.2%-29.6%. A classification of perforation type based on the instrument that caused the perforation was recently described that we postulated could affect the implementation of perforation management. In the present article, an algorithm for management and prevention of ERCP-related perforations is proposed that is based on the perforation type and delay of diagnosis. Available evidence demonstrates that a delayed diagnosis and/or treatment of perforation results in a poorer prognosis, and thus should be at the forefront of procedural consideration. Furthermore, this review provides steps and recommendations from the pre-procedural stage through the post-procedural evaluation with consideration of contributing factors in order to minimize ERCP-related complication risk and improve patient outcome. To avoid perforation, endoscopists must evaluate the risks related to the individual patient and the procedure and perform the procedure gently. Once a perforation occurs, immediate diagnosis and early management are key factors to minimize mortality.
Varayu Prachayakul, Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.