Medline ® Abstracts for References 6-8
of 'Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) septic complications'
Septicemia after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
Devière J, Motte S, Dumonceau JM, Serruys E, Thys JP, Cremer M
Clinical and bacteriological data from 55 patients who developed septicemia within 3 days after ERCP were collected. Forty-four patients presented with septicemia after therapeutic endoscopy, with incomplete drainage in forty, eight after diagnostic ERCP performed in obstructed bile ducts in another center and not followed by endoscopic therapy, and three with a normal common bile duct after diagnostic ERCP. The incidence of septicemia is significantly higher in cases of malignant obstruction than in benign obstruction (21% vs 3%; p less than 0.01), due mainly to the problems of drainage associated with tumoral infiltration. Forty-eight patients (87%) had incomplete bile duct drainage when they developed septicemia, and among the seven remaining cases, 3 had cholecystitis and 3 abscesses in the biliopancreatic area. Previous diagnostic ERCP without drainage was also clearly associated with septicemia after therapeutic ERCP. The most commonly isolated bacteria from blood and bile cultures were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. P. aeruginosa was observed mainly in patients referred from other centers after previous diagnostic ERCP, and was unusual in patients without previous ERCP. It is associated with problems in the disinfection of the scopes. Six deaths were attributed to sepsis, always in patients with incomplete biliary drainage which could not be improved. In most of the cases, septicemia after ERCP is related to incomplete bile duct drainage, and in some cases, to biliopancreatic infected collections. Careful disinfection of the endoscopes and other endoscopic devices is mandatory to avoid an unacceptably high rate of P. aeruginosa infection.
Department of Gastroenterology, Erasme Hospital, Free University of Brussels, Belgium.
Risk factors for septicemia following endoscopic biliary stenting.
Motte S, Deviere J, Dumonceau JM, Serruys E, Thys JP, Cremer M
The purpose of this study was to identify patients who were more likely to experience septicemia after endoscopic biliary drainage. In an attempt to determine the relative importance of each risk factor and their possible interdependancy to more precisely identify high-risk patients and to deduce some guidelines for prevention, a discriminant regression analysis of risk factors for septicemia was used. Clinical, biological, and radiological data of 34 consecutive patients who experienced septicemia within 3 days after endoscopic biliary stenting were reviewed retrospectively and compared with data of a group of 71 patients without any septic complication. If only data available before the procedure were used in the discriminant analysis, prior cholangitis and leucocytosis appeared as significant risk factors, but the linear combination of these data could not predict septicemia in 50% of cases. When information concerning the quality of drainage after the procedure was introduced into the analysis, 91% of the septicemic patients were identified, and other expected risk factors such as the nature of the stricture, the type of drainage, or prior cholangitis and leukocytosis had no or marginal predictive values. Patients referred from centers where duodenoscopes might have been poorly disinfected appeared to be at higher risk for Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia. These results emphasize the crucial role of the quality of drainage as a risk for septicemia. Regarding the prevention of infection, it is concluded from this study that (a) pure diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be avoided in obstructed patients if drainage cannot be performed during the same procedure; (b) drainage should be as complete as possible; (c) antibiotics should be administered before ERCP to every patient with suspected obstructive jaundice and should cover P. aeruginosa if local epidemiological data suggest that there is a problem with disinfection of the endoscopes; and (d) the quality of drainage should guide the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis.
Department of Medecine, Hôpital Erasme, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa liver abscesses following endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Report of a case without biliary tract disease.
Davion T, Braillon A, Delamarre J, Delcenserie R, Joly JP, Capron JP
Dig Dis Sci. 1987;32(9):1044.
We report a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa liver abscesses following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in a patient without evidence of biliary tract disease and of any known cause of hepatic infection. Computer tomography (CT) scan was the best method of diagnosis, allowing, through guided percutaneous puncture of the abscesses, isolation of the organism, which was sensitive to carbenicillin. One month of antibiotherapy with repeated aspirations of the largest abscesses was successful. This report suggests that ERCP may induce cholangitic sepsis by inoculating pathogens in the biliary tree even in the absence of extrahepatic obstruction.