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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 5

of 'Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) bleeding'

Post-sphincterotomy bleeding: who, what, when, and how.
Ferreira LE, Baron TH
Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(12):2850.
Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (ES) is the cornerstone of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Bleeding is one of the most frequent complications following ES. Rates of post-ES bleeding vary widely and its presentation may be immediate (intraprocedural) or several days later. Clinically, bleeding can range from insignificant to life threatening. Most bleeding episodes are managed successfully by conservative measures with or without endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic treatment options include injection, thermal, and mechanical methods-alone or in combination. For refractory cases, angiographic embolization, or surgery, is necessary. Both technical risk factors and patient risk factors contribute to the development of post-ES bleeding. When these risk factors are present, measures can be taken to reduce the risk of bleeding. In this manuscript the literature on post-ES bleeding is reviewed.
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology&Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.