Medline ® Abstracts for References 2-4
of 'Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) bleeding'
Major early complications from diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.
Loperfido S, Angelini G, Benedetti G, Chilovi F, Costan F, De Berardinis F, De Bernardin M, Ederle A, Fina P, Fratton A
Gastrointest Endosc. 1998;48(1):1.
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of multicenter prospective studies on complications of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
METHODS: We studied 2769 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP at nine centers in the Triveneto region of Italy over a 2-year period. Six centers performed ERCP on less than 200 patients per year (small centers). General and ERCP-specific major complications were predefined. Data were collected at the time of ERCP, before discharge, and in cases of readmission within 30 days. ERCP was defined as therapeutic when endoscopic sphincterotomy (n = 1583), precut (n = 419), or drainage (n = 701) had been carried out, singularly or in combination.
RESULTS: One hundred eleven major complications (4.0%) were recorded: moderate-severe pancreatitis 36 (1.3%), cholangitis 24 (0.87%), hemorrhage 21 (0.76%), duodenal perforation 16 (0.58%), others 14 (0.51%). Among 942 diagnostic ERCPs there were 13 major complications (1.38%) and 2 deaths (0.21%), whereas among 1827 therapeutic ERCPs there were 98 major complications (5.4%) and 9 deaths (0.49%). The difference in the incidence of complications between diagnostic and therapeutic ERCPs was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Small center and precut were recognized as independent risk factors for overall major complications of therapeutic ERCP, whereas the following risk factors were identified in relation to specific complications: (1) pancreatitis: age less than 70 years, pancreatic duct opacification, and nondilated common bile duct; (2) cholangitis: small center, jaundice; (3) hemorrhage: small center; and (4) retroperitoneal duodenal perforation: precut, intramural injection of contrast medium, and Billroth II gastrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: Major complications are mostly associated with therapeutic procedures and low case volume. Present data support a policy of centralization of ERCP in referral centers. A more selected and safer use of precut may be expected to further limit the adverse events of ERCP.
S.I.E.D. (Italian Society for Digestive Endoscopy) Triveneto Study Group on ERCP Complications: Ospedali di Treviso, Italy.
ERCP in post-Billroth II gastrectomy patients: emphasis on technique.
Lin LF, Siauw CP, Ho KS, Tung JC
Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(1):144.
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in post-Billroth II (BII) gastrectomy is more difficult due to anatomical changes. The difficulties include entrance to the afferent loop and selective cannulation. Our aim here is to report the success rate and special manipulations and techniques of this procedure.
METHODS: A retrospective review of 56 ERCP procedures in post-BII gastrectomy patients was performed. There were 43 male and 13 female patients with a mean age of 63 yr (range, 32-78 yr). All cases were tried with forward-viewing endoscope first. Of the failed cases, 10 were retried by side-view duodenoscope. The entrance to the afferent loop was attempted by starting from the upper opening at the anastomosis site and, if this failed, then using the lower opening; presence of bile; and air-contrasted afferent loop under fluoroscopy. If failure of afferent loop entrance resulted, hand compression over the mid-abdomen, or polypectomy snare in the working channel of the endoscope, was tried. For failure of common bile duct cannulation with straight catheters, techniques of pushing the catheter against the duodenal wall and bending the tip of the endoscope or guidewire were used.
RESULTS: The success rate of afferent loop entrance was 76.7% (43 of 56 cases). The afferent loop was identified in the upper orifice of the anastomosis in 93% (40 of 43) of the cases. Eight cases of afferent loop entrance could be facilitated by hand compression, and three by polypectomy snare in the working channel of the endoscope. The success rate of ERCP cannulation in those successful afferent loop intubation cases was 81.3% (35/43 cases). Most of the selective common bile duct (CBD) cannulation was achieved by straight (new) catheter and an additional six cases were successful using the techniques mentioned. No serious complications were encountered, except three cases of submucosal hemorrhage.
CONCLUSION: The overall success rate of BII ERCP was 62.5% (35 of 56 cases). The special manipulations mentioned in BII ERCP can be helpful in certain cases.
Department of Internal Medicine, Shalu Tungs Memorial Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.
The management of antithrombotic agents for patients undergoing GI endoscopy.
ASGE Standards of Practice Committee, Acosta RD, Abraham NS, Chandrasekhara V, Chathadi KV, Early DS, Eloubeidi MA, Evans JA, Faulx AL, Fisher DA, Fonkalsrud L, Hwang JH, Khashab MA, Lightdale JR, Muthusamy VR, Pasha SF, Saltzman JR, Shaukat A, Shergill AK, Wang A, Cash BD, DeWitt JM
Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Jan;83(1):3-16. Epub 2015 Nov 24.