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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 14

of 'Peripartum cardiomyopathy: Treatment and prognosis'

14
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Pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy: clinical characteristics and a comparison between early and late presentation.
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Elkayam U, Akhter MW, Singh H, Khan S, Bitar F, Hameed A, Shotan A
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Circulation. 2005;111(16):2050.
 
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy associated with pregnancy was first described more than half a century ago. However, because of its rare occurrence and geographical differences, the clinical profile of this condition has remained incompletely defined.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Data obtained from 123 women with a history of cardiomyopathy diagnosed during pregnancy or the postpartum period were reviewed. One hundred women met traditional criteria of peripartum cardiomyopathy; 23 were diagnosed with pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy earlier than the last gestational month. Peripartum cardiomyopathy patients had a mean age of 31+/-6 years and were mostly white (67%). Common associated conditions were gestational hypertension (43%), tocolytic therapy (19%), and twin pregnancy (13%). Left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of diagnosis was 29+/-11% and improved to 46+/-14% (P<or =0.0001) at follow-up. Normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction occurred in 54% and was more likely in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction>30% at diagnosis. Maternal mortality was 9%. A comparison between the peripartum cardiomyopathy and early pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy groups revealed no differences in age, race, associated conditions, left ventricular ejection fraction at diagnosis, its rate and time of recovery, and maternal outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This study helps to define the clinical profile of patients with pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy diagnosed in the United States. Clinical presentation and outcome of patients with pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy diagnosed early in pregnancy are similar to those of patients with traditional peripartum cardiomyopathy. These 2 conditions may represent a continuum of a spectrum of the same disease.
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Heart Failure Program, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. elkayam@usc.edu
PMID