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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 93

of 'Pathophysiology of and immune response to Helicobacter pylori infection'

Vaccinating against Helicobacter pylori infection.
Czinn SJ, Blanchard T
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Mar;8(3):133-40. Epub 2011 Feb 08.
Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality almost 30 years after its discovery. H. pylori infection can lead to several gastric maladies, including gastric cancer, and although antimicrobial therapies for the infection exist, the cost of treatment for gastric cancer and the prognosis of individuals who present with this disease make vaccine development a cost effective alternative to bacterial eradication. Experimental mucosal and systemic H. pylori vaccines in mice significantly reduce bacterial load and sometimes provide sterilizing immunity. Clinical trials of oral vaccines consisting of H. pylori proteins with bacterial exotoxin adjuvants or live attenuated bacterial vectors expressing H. pylori proteins induce adaptive immune mechanisms but fail to consistently reduce bacterial load. Clinical trials and murine studies demonstrate that where H. pylori is killed, either spontaneously or following vaccination, the host demonstrated cellular immunity. Improved efficacy of vaccines may be achieved in new trials of vaccine formulations that include multiple antigens and use methods to optimize cellular immunity. Unfortunately, the industrial sponsors that served as the primary engine for much of the previous animal and human research have withdrawn their support. A renewed or expanded commitment from the biotechnology or pharmaceutical industry that could exploit recent advances in our understanding of the host immune response to H. pylori is necessary for the advancement of an H. pylori vaccine.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W. Baltimore Street, Bressler Research Building, 13-043, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.