Medline ® Abstract for Reference 2
of 'Pathology, classification, and grading of neuroendocrine tumors arising in the digestive system'
Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Chan A, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM
Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (BP-NETs) comprise approximately 20% of all lung cancers and represent a spectrum of tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells of the BP-epithelium. Although they share structural, morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features, they are separated into 4 subgroups: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which exhibit considerably different biological characteristics. The clinical presentation includes cough, hemoptysis, and obstructive pneumonia but varies depending on site, size, and growth pattern. Less than 5% of BP-NETs exhibit hormonally related symptoms such as carcinoid syndrome, Cushing, acromegaly, and SIADH. SCLC is the most common BP-NET, while LCNEC is rare, approximately 10% and<or =1%, respectively, of all lung cancers. Both SCLC and LCNEC progress rapidly, are aggressively metastatic, and exhibit a poor prognosis. The incidence of BP-carcinoids (TC and AC) in the US was 1.57 of 100,000 in 2003 (an unexplained and substantial increase over the last 30 years, approximately 6% per year). No curative treatment except for radical surgery (almost never feasible) exists. The slow-growing TC exhibit a fairly good prognosis ( approximately 88%, 5-year survival), whereas AC demonstrate a 5-year survival of approximately 50%, and the highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC5-year survival of 15% to57% and<5%, respectively. This review provides a broad overview on BP-NETs and focuses on the evolution of the disease, general features, and current diagnostic and therapeutic options.
Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8062, USA.