Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-4
of 'Pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis'
A comparison of fibrosis progression in chronic liver diseases.
Poynard T, Mathurin P, Lai CL, Guyader D, Poupon R, Tainturier MH, Myers RP, Muntenau M, Ratziu V, Manns M, Vogel A, Capron F, Chedid A, Bedossa P, PANFIBROSIS Group
J Hepatol. 2003;38(3):257.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: No study has compared the liver fibrosis progression rates among chronic liver diseases and the risk factors in order to better organize screening strategies.
METHODS: A total of 4852 patients were retrospectively studied (chronic hepatitis C (HCV) [n=2313], human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV co-infection (HIV-HCV [n=180]), hepatitis B (HBV [n=777]), alcoholic liver disease (ALD [n=701]), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC [n=406]), genetic hemochromatosis (GH [n=383]) auto-immune hepatitis (AIH [n=57]) and delta hepatitis (n=35). The fibrosis progression rates were estimated from birth and from the date of exposure, when known, to the first biopsy.
RESULTS: There were highly significant differences in the rates of fibrosis progression, the most rapid being HIV-HCV co-infection (50% cirrhosis percentile at 52 years of age) and the slowest being PBC (50% cirrhosis percentile at 81 years). There was an acceleration of fibrosis progression with aging. Fibrosis progression was slower in females compared with males for HCV, HBV, GH, and PBC. In contrast, in ALD, the fibrosis progression was more rapid in females.
CONCLUSIONS: Rates of fibrosis progression differ markedly between the predominant causes of chronic liver disease, and according to age and gender. Patients with HIV-HCV co-infection are at particularly high risk of fibrosis progression.
Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, et UPRESA 8067 CNRS, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hopital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Genetic polymorphisms and the progression of liver fibrosis: a critical appraisal.
Bataller R, North KE, Brenner DA
Liver fibrosis is a highly dynamic process in which multiple genes interact with environmental factors. Recent human epidemiologic studies have identified possible polymorphisms in a number of candidate genes that influence the progression of liver fibrosis. These genetic factors could explain the broad spectrum of responses to the same etiologic agent found in patients with chronic liver diseases. Polymorphisms in genes encoding immunoregulatory proteins, proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrogenic factors may influence disease progression in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, or chronic hepatitis C. However, some of the studies have yielded contradictory results. For example, conflicting results have been obtained in studies assessing the role of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene on fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Large-scale, well-designed studies are required to clarify the actual role of this factor and other genetic variants in liver fibrosis.
Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Genome-wide analysis of hepatic fibrosis in inbred mice identifies the susceptibility locus Hfib1 on chromosome 15.
Hillebrandt S, Goos C, Matern S, Lammert F
BACKGROUND& AIMS: Host genetic factors are likely to contribute to the variable course of hepatic fibrosis in response to chronic liver injury. Similarly, the fibrotic response differs among inbred mouse strains after challenge with CCl(4). Our aim was to identify unknown susceptibility loci for hepatic fibrosis in a cross between fibrosis-susceptible and -resistant inbred mice.
METHODS: Seven inbred mouse strains were treated with CCl(4), and hepatic fibrosis was phenotypically characterized by histology, hepatic hydroxyproline levels, and serum surrogate markers. F(1) hybrids of susceptible BALB/cJ and resistant A/J inbred strains were intercrossed to obtain 358 F(2) progeny. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that determine hepatic fibrosis were identified by genome-wide interval mapping and haplotype analysis.
RESULTS: In this model, marked strain differences in fibrosis susceptibility exist, with BALB/c inbred mice being most susceptible. The hydroxyproline levels of F(1) mice resemble the resistant parental strains, indicating that fibrosis susceptibility is a recessive trait. QTL analysis identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 15 that significantly affects the stage of fibrosis and hydroxyproline levels. According to standard nomenclature, this locus is called Hfib1 (hepatic fibrogenic gene 1). Hfib1 is defined by genetic markers D15Mit26 and D15Mit122. A suggestive QTL on chromosome 2 colocalizes with the complement factor 5 gene, known to be mutated in the resistant strain A.
CONCLUSIONS: The set of inbred strains provides a framework for systematic analysis of fibrogenic genes. QTL mapping is useful to identify genetic susceptibility loci for hepatic fibrosis that might harbor new molecular targets for antifibrotic drug design.
Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Aachen, Aachen University, Germany.
Evolving challenges in hepatic fibrosis.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;7(8):425. Epub 2010 Jun 29.
Continued elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis has yielded a comprehensive and nuanced portrait of fibrosis progression and regression. The paradigm of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation remains the foundation for defining events in hepatic fibrosis and has been complemented by progress in a number of new areas. Cellular sources of extracellular matrix beyond HSCs have been identified. In addition, the role of chemokine, adipokine, neuroendocrine, angiogenic and NAPDH oxidase signaling in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis has been uncovered, as has the contribution of extracellular matrix stiffness to fibrogenesis. There is also increased awareness of the contribution of innate immunity and greater understanding of the complexity of gene regulation in HSCs and myofibroblasts. Finally, both apoptosis and senescence have been recognized as orchestrated programs that eliminate fibrogenic cells during resolution of liver fibrosis. Ironically, the progress that has been made has highlighted the growing disparity between advances in the experimental setting and their translation into new diagnostic tools and treatments. As a result, focus is shifting towards overcoming key translational challenges in order to accelerate the development of new therapies for patients with chronic liver disease.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Liver Diseases, New York, NY 10029, USA. email@example.com