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Orthopedic aspects of child abuse

Susan A Scherl, MD
Section Editors
William Phillips, MD
Daniel M Lindberg, MD
Deputy Editor
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH


An overview of the orthopedic aspects of child abuse will be presented here.

The differential diagnosis of the orthopedic manifestations of child abuse, recognition of physical child abuse, and the diagnosis and management of physical child abuse is presented separately. (See "Differential diagnosis of the orthopedic manifestations of child abuse" and "Physical child abuse: Recognition" and "Physical child abuse: Diagnostic evaluation and management".)


The epidemiology of the orthopedic aspects of child abuse will be discussed below. The epidemiology of child abuse, including risk factors in the perpetrators, victims, and environment, is discussed in detail separately. (See "Physical child abuse: Recognition", section on 'Epidemiology'.)

Soft-tissue injuries are the most common injuries identified in physical abuse and are present in as many as 92 percent of victims [1]. Fractures are the second most common injury and are present in as many as 55 percent of physically abused children, depending upon the type of abuse and the method of fracture detection [2-4].

Most inflicted fractures occur during infancy and early childhood [3], with as many as 85 percent occurring in children younger than three years, and 69 percent in children younger than one year [2,5,6]. The estimated annual incidence of fractures attributable to abuse is 36 cases per 100,000 children younger than 12 months, and 5 cases per 100,000 children between 12 and 35 months [7].

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Literature review current through: Sep 2017. | This topic last updated: Mar 06, 2017.
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