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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 83

of 'Neurogenic pulmonary edema'

Inflammation in human brain injury: intracerebral concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and their endogenous inhibitor IL-1ra.
Hutchinson PJ, O'Connell MT, Rothwell NJ, Hopkins SJ, Nortje J, Carpenter KL, Timofeev I, Al-Rawi PG, Menon DK, Pickard JD
J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(10):1545.
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), cascades of inflammatory processes occur. Laboratory studies implicate the cytokines interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and IL-1beta in the pathophysiology of TBI and cerebral ischemia, whilst exogenous and endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is neuroprotective. We analyzed IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1ra in brain microdialysates (100-kDa membrane) in 15 TBI patients. We also analyzed energy-related molecules (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and the lactate/pyruvate ratio) in these brain microdialysates. Mean of mean (+/-SD) in vitro microdialysis percentage recoveries (extraction efficiencies) were IL-1alpha 19.7+/-7.6%, IL-1beta 23.9+/-10.5%, and IL-1ra 20.9+/-6.3%. In the patients' brain microdialysates, mean of mean cytokine concentrations (not corrected for percentage recovery) were IL-1alpha 5.6+/-14.8 pg/mL, IL-1beta 10.4+/-14.7 pg/mL, and IL-1ra 2796+/-2918 pg/mL. IL-1ra was consistently much higher than IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. There were no significant relationships between IL-1 family cytokines and energy-related molecules. There was a significant correlation between increasing IL-1beta and increasing IL-1ra (Spearman r=0.59,p=0.028). There was also a significant relationship between increasing IL-1ra and decreasing intracranial pressure (Spearman r=-0.57, p=0.041). High concentrations of IL-1ra, and also high IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratio, were associated with better outcome (Mann Whitney, p=0.018 and p=0.0201, respectively), within these 15 patients. It is unclear whether these IL-1ra concentrations are sufficient to antagonize the effects of IL-1beta in vivo. This study demonstrates feasibility of our microdialysis methodology in recovering IL-1 family cytokines for assessing their inter-relationships in the injured human brain, and suggests a neuroprotective role for IL-1ra. It remains to be seen whether exogenous IL-1ra or other agents can be used to manipulate cytokine levels in the brain, for potential therapeutic effect.
Academic Unit of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pjah2@cam.ac.uk