Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Misoprostol as a single agent for medical termination of pregnancy

Caitlin Shannon, MPH
Beverly Winikoff, MD, MPH
Section Editor
Jody Steinauer, MD, MAS
Deputy Editor
Sandy J Falk, MD, FACOG


Medical methods for induced abortion have emerged over the past two decades as safe, effective, and feasible alternatives to surgery. Nonsurgical alternatives expand a woman's treatment options and, in turn, the quality of care [1]. Moreover, in some settings, surgical options are not available to women or are not medically feasible.

In first trimester abortion, combined treatment with misoprostol with mifepristone appears to be more effective than misoprostol-alone regimens, and thus, are considered the gold standard for medical induction [2,3]. However, misoprostol-alone regimens may be the treatment of choice in settings in which mifepristone is not available or is too costly.

Misoprostol is commonly used as a single agent for second trimester induced abortion in the United States and many other parts of the world [4,5].

This topic review will discuss use of misoprostol in pregnancy termination. Use of mifepristone and other medical and surgical approaches to pregnancy termination and use of misoprostol for fetal demise or labor induction are reviewed separately. (See "First-trimester medication abortion (termination of pregnancy)" and "Overview of pregnancy termination" and "Spontaneous abortion: Management" and "Fetal death and stillbirth: Incidence, etiology, and prevention" and "Techniques for ripening the unfavorable cervix prior to induction".)


Misoprostol is a synthetic E1 prostaglandin (PGE1) developed and approved originally for the prevention of gastric ulcers. Misoprostol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for uterine evacuation in pregnant women.

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 28, 2014.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Borgatta L, Mullally B, Vragovic O, et al. Misoprostol as the primary agent for medical abortion in a low-income urban setting. Contraception 2004; 70:121.
  2. Aldrich T, Winikoff B. Does methotrexate confer a significant advantage over misoprostol alone for early medical abortion? A retrospective analysis of 8678 abortions. BJOG 2007; 114:555.
  3. Wiebe ER, Trouton KJ, Lima R. Misoprostol alone vs. methotrexate followed by misoprostol for early abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 95:286.
  4. United Nations Development Program/United Nations Fund for Population Activities/World Health Organization/World Bank Special Program of Research Development and Research Training in Human Reprod. Annual Technical Report, 1997. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 1998.
  5. Saha S, Bal R, Ghosh S, Krishnamurthy P. Medical abortion in late second trimester--a comparative study with misoprostol through vaginal versus oral followed by vaginal route. J Indian Med Assoc 2006; 104:81.
  6. Tang OS, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Ho PC. Misoprostol: pharmacokinetic profiles, effects on the uterus and side-effects. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007; 99 Suppl 2:S160.
  7. Zieman M, Fong SK, Benowitz NL, et al. Absorption kinetics of misoprostol with oral or vaginal administration. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 90:88.
  8. Tang OS, Schweer H, Seyberth HW, et al. Pharmacokinetics of different routes of administration of misoprostol. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:332.
  9. Danielsson KG, Marions L, Rodriguez A, et al. Comparison between oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol on uterine contractility. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93:275.
  10. Arvidsson C, Hellborg M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Preference and acceptability of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol in medical abortion with mifepristone. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 123:87.
  11. Schaff EA, DiCenzo R, Fielding SL. Comparison of misoprostol plasma concentrations following buccal and sublingual administration. Contraception 2005; 71:22.
  12. Meckstroth KR, Whitaker AK, Bertisch S, et al. Misoprostol administered by epithelial routes: Drug absorption and uterine response. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 108:582.
  13. Creinin MD, Carbonell JL, Schwartz JL, et al. A randomized trial of the effect of moistening misoprostol before vaginal administration when used with methotrexate for abortion. Contraception 1999; 59:11.
  14. Sanchez-Ramos L, Danner CJ, Delke I, Kaunitz AM. The effect of tablet moistening on labor induction with intravaginal misoprostol: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 99:1080.
  15. Bhattacharjee N, Saha SP, Ganguly RP, et al. A randomized comparative study on vaginal administration of acetic acid-moistened versus dry misoprostol for mid-trimester pregnancy termination. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012; 285:311.
  16. Pongsatha S, Tongsong T. Randomized controlled study comparing misoprostol moistened with normal saline and with acetic acid for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Is it different? J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2011; 37:882.
  17. Goldberg AB, Greenberg MB, Darney PD. Misoprostol and pregnancy. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:38.
  18. Goyal V. Uterine rupture in second-trimester misoprostol-induced abortion after cesarean delivery: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113:1117.
  19. Kim JO, Han JY, Choi JS, et al. Oral misoprostol and uterine rupture in the first trimester of pregnancy: a case report. Reprod Toxicol 2005; 20:575.
  20. Daskalakis GJ, Mesogitis SA, Papantoniou NE, et al. Misoprostol for second trimester pregnancy termination in women with prior caesarean section. BJOG 2005; 112:97.
  21. Dickinson JE. Misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination in women with a prior cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:352.
  22. El-Matary A, Navaratnarajah R, Economides DL. Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine dehiscence following mifepristone/misoprostol regime in early second trimester termination. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 26:578.
  23. Mazouni C, Provensal M, Porcu G, et al. Termination of pregnancy in patients with previous cesarean section. Contraception 2006; 73:244.
  24. Nayki U, Taner CE, Mizrak T, et al. Uterine rupture during second trimester abortion with misoprostol. Fetal Diagn Ther 2005; 20:469.
  25. Mazzone ME, Woolever J. Uterine rupture in a patient with an unscarred uterus: a case study. WMJ 2006; 105:64.
  26. Al-Hussaini TK. Uterine rupture in second trimester abortion in a grand multiparous woman. A complication of misoprostol and oxytocin. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001; 96:218.
  27. Syed S, Noreen H, Kahloon LE, Chaudhri R. Uterine rupture associated with the use of intra-vaginal misoprostol during second-trimester pregnancy termination. J Pak Med Assoc 2011; 61:399.
  28. Cuellar Torriente M. Silent uterine rupture with the use of misoprostol for second trimester termination of pregnancy : a case report. Obstet Gynecol Int 2011; 2011:584652.
  29. Berghella V, Airoldi J, O'Neill AM, et al. Misoprostol for second trimester pregnancy termination in women with prior caesarean: a systematic review. BJOG 2009; 116:1151.
  30. Naguib AH, Morsi HM, Borg TF, et al. Vaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination after one previous cesarean delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010; 108:48.
  31. Fawzy M, Abdel-Hady el-S. Midtrimester abortion using vaginal misoprostol for women with three or more prior cesarean deliveries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010; 110:50.
  32. Lalitkumar S, Bygdeman M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Mid-trimester induced abortion: a review. Hum Reprod Update 2007; 13:37.
  33. Ngai SW, Tang OS, Ho PC. Prostaglandins for induction of second-trimester termination and intrauterine death. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 17:765.
  34. Vogel D, Burkhardt T, Rentsch K, et al. Misoprostol versus methylergometrine: pharmacokinetics in human milk. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:2168.
  35. Jain JK, Mishell DR Jr. A comparison of misoprostol with and without laminaria tents for induction of second-trimester abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 175:173.
  36. Borgatta L, Chen AY, Vragovic O, et al. A randomized clinical trial of the addition of laminaria to misoprostol and hypertonic saline for second-trimester induction abortion. Contraception 2005; 72:358.
  37. Fjerstad M, Trussell J, Lichtenberg ES, et al. Severity of infection following the introduction of new infection control measures for medical abortion. Contraception 2011; 83:330.
  38. Fjerstad M, Trussell J, Sivin I, et al. Rates of serious infection after changes in regimens for medical abortion. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:145.
  39. Meites E, Zane S, Gould C, C. sordellii Investigators. Fatal Clostridium sordellii infections after medical abortions. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1382.
  40. Blanchard K, Shochet T, Coyaji K, et al. Misoprostol alone for early abortion: an evaluation of seven potential regimens. Contraception 2005; 72:91.
  41. Gilbert A, Reid R. A randomised trial of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol for the purpose of mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 41:407.
  42. Bebbington MW, Kent N, Lim K, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing two protocols for the use of misoprostol in midtrimester pregnancy termination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187:853.
  43. Dickinson JE, Evans SF. A comparison of oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol administration in second-trimester pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101:1294.
  44. Tang OS, Miao BY, Lee SW, Ho PC. Pilot study on the use of repeated doses of sublingual misoprostol in termination of pregnancy up to 12 weeks gestation: efficacy and acceptability. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:654.
  45. Cheung W, Tang OS, Lee SW, Ho PC. Pilot study on the use of sublingual misoprostol in termination of pregnancy up to 7 weeks gestation. Contraception 2003; 68:97.
  46. Bhattacharjee N, Saha SP, Ghoshroy SC, et al. A randomised comparative study on sublingual versus vaginal administration of misoprostol for termination of pregnancy between 13 to 20 weeks. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2008; 48:165.
  47. Ngoc NT, Blum J, Raghavan S, et al. Comparing two early medical abortion regimens: mifepristone+misoprostol vs. misoprostol alone. Contraception 2011; 83:410.
  48. Ngoc NT, Shochet T, Raghavan S, et al. Mifepristone and misoprostol compared with misoprostol alone for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118:601.
  49. Salakos N, Kountouris A, Botsis D, et al. First-trimester pregnancy termination with 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol every 12 h. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2005; 10:249.
  50. Carbonell JL, Rodríguez J, Velazco A, et al. Oral and vaginal misoprostol 800 microg every 8 h for early abortion. Contraception 2003; 67:457.
  51. Carbonell JL, Velazco A, Varela L, et al. Misoprostol for abortion at 9-12 weeks' gestation in adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2001; 6:39.
  52. Carbonell JL, Rodriguez J, Aragón S, et al. Vaginal misoprostol 1000 microg for early abortion. Contraception 2001; 63:131.
  53. Velazco A, Varela L, Tanda R, et al. Misoprostol for abortion up to 9 weeks' gestation in adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2000; 5:227.
  54. Ngai SW, Tang OS, Chan YM, Ho PC. Vaginal misoprostol alone for medical abortion up to 9 weeks of gestation: efficacy and acceptability. Hum Reprod 2000; 15:1159.
  55. Esteve JL, Varela L, Velazco A, et al. Early abortion with 800 micrograms of misoprostol by the vaginal route. Contraception 1999; 59:219.
  56. Carbonell Esteve JL, Varela L, Velazco A, et al. Vaginal misoprostol for late first trimester abortion. Contraception 1998; 57:329.
  57. Carbonell JL, Varela L, Velazco A, et al. Vaginal misoprostol for abortion at 10-13 weeks' gestation. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 1999; 4:35.
  58. Carbonell JL, Varela L, Velazco A, Fernández C. The use of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy. Contraception 1997; 55:165.
  59. Caliskan E, Dilbaz S, Doger E, et al. Randomized comparison of 3 misoprostol protocols for abortion induction at 13-20 weeks of gestation. J Reprod Med 2005; 50:173.
  60. Nakintu N. A comparative study of vaginal misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin for induction of labour in women with intra uterine fetal death in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Afr Health Sci 2001; 1:55.
  61. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G, Huong NT, et al. Efficacy of two intervals and two routes of administration of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Lancet 2007; 369:1938.
  62. Tang OS, Lau WN, Chan CC, Ho PC. A prospective randomised comparison of sublingual and vaginal misoprostol in second trimester termination of pregnancy. BJOG 2004; 111:1001.
  63. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G, Wojdyla D, et al. Comparison of vaginal and sublingual misoprostol for second trimester abortion: randomized controlled equivalence trial. Hum Reprod 2009; 24:106.
  64. Ganguly RP, Saha SP, Mukhopadhyay S, et al. A comparative study on sublingual versus oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol for late first and early second trimester abortion. J Indian Med Assoc 2010; 108:283.
  65. Cabrera Y, Fernández-Guisasola J, Lobo P, et al. Comparison of sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination: a meta-analysis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 51:158.
  66. Wildschut H, Both MI, Medema S, et al. Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; :CD005216.
  67. Blum J, Raghavan S, Dabash R, et al. Comparison of misoprostol-only and combined mifepristone-misoprostol regimens for home-based early medical abortion in Tunisia and Vietnam. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012; 118:166.
  68. Sayette H, Redwine D, Sivin I, et al.. Buccal use of misoprostol alone for early abortion: The experience in four Latin American countries (abstract). Contraception 2011; 84:302.
  69. Winikoff B, Dzuba IG, Creinin MD, et al. Two distinct oral routes of misoprostol in mifepristone medical abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 112:1303.
  70. Middleton T, Schaff E, Fielding SL, et al. Randomized trial of mifepristone and buccal or vaginal misoprostol for abortion through 56 days of last menstrual period. Contraception 2005; 72:328.
  71. Kapp N, Borgatta L, Stubblefield P, et al. Mifepristone in second-trimester medical abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110:1304.
  72. Patel A, Talmont E, Morfesis J, et al. Adequacy and safety of buccal misoprostol for cervical preparation prior to termination of second-trimester pregnancy. Contraception 2006; 73:420.
  73. Ellis SC, Kapp N, Vragpvoc O, Borgata L. Randomized trial of buccal versus vaginal misoprostol for induction of second trimester abortion. Contraception 2010; 81:441.
  74. Liaquat NF, Javed I, Shuja S, et al. Therapeutic termination of second trimester pregnancies with low dose misoprostol. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006; 16:464.
  75. Makhlouf AM, Al-Hussaini TK, Habib DM, Makarem MH. Second-trimester pregnancy termination: comparison of three different methods. J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 23:407.
  76. Feldman DM, Borgida AF, Rodis JF, et al. A randomized comparison of two regimens of misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189:710.
  77. Faúndes A, Fiala C, Tang OS, Velasco A. Misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy up to 12 completed weeks of pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007; 99 Suppl 2:S172.
  78. Guix C, Palacio M, Figueras F, et al. Efficacy of two regimens of misoprostol for early second-trimester pregnancy termination. Fetal Diagn Ther 2005; 20:544.
  79. Bugalho A, Faúndes A, Jamisse L, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol to induce first trimester abortion. Contraception 1996; 53:244.
  80. Wong KS, Ngai CS, Yeo EL, et al. A comparison of two regimens of intravaginal misoprostol for termination of second trimester pregnancy: a randomized comparative trial. Hum Reprod 2000; 15:709.
  81. Herabutya Y, Chanrachakul B, Punyavachira P. A randomised controlled trial of 6 and 12 hourly administration of vaginal misoprostol for second trimester pregnancy termination. BJOG 2005; 112:1297.
  82. Dickinson JE, Evans SF. The optimization of intravaginal misoprostol dosing schedules in second-trimester pregnancy termination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186:470.
  83. Edwards RK, Sims SM. Outcomes of second-trimester pregnancy terminations with misoprostol: comparing 2 regimens. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193:544.
  84. Dodd J, O'Brien L, Coffey J. Misoprostol for second and third trimester termination of pregnancy: a review of practice at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 45:25.
  85. Langer BR, Peter C, Firtion C, et al. Second and third medical termination of pregnancy with misoprostol without mifepristone. Fetal Diagn Ther 2004; 19:266.
  86. Prachasilpchai N, Russameecharoen K, Borriboonhirunsarn D. Success rate of second-trimester termination of pregnancy using misoprostol. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89:1115.
  87. Perritt JB, Burke A, Edelman AB. Interruption of nonviable pregnancies of 24-28 weeks' gestation using medical methods: release date June 2013 SFP guideline #20133. Contraception 2013; 88:341.
  88. Bracken H, Ngoc NT, Banks E, et al. Buccal misoprostol for treatment of fetal death at 14-28 weeks of pregnancy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Contraception 2014; 89:187.
  89. Ho PC, Blumenthal PD, Gemzell-Danielsson K, et al. Misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy with a live fetus at 13 to 26 weeks. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007; 99 Suppl 2:S178.
  90. Küçükgöz Güleç U, Urunsak IF, Eser E, et al. Misoprostol for midtrimester termination of pregnancy in women with 1 or more prior cesarean deliveries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2013; 120:85.
  91. Choudhary N, Bagga R, Raveendran A, et al. Second trimester abortion in women with and without previous uterine scar: Eleven years experience from a developing country. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2011; 16:378.
  92. Jain JK, Dutton C, Harwood B, et al. A prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol to vaginal misoprostol alone for elective termination of early pregnancy. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:1477.
  93. Borgatta L, Kapp N, Society of Family Planning. Clinical guidelines. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester. Contraception 2011; 84:4.
  94. Shaw D. Misoprostol for reproductive health: Dosage recommendations. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007; 99 Suppl 2:S155.
  95. Safe abortion: Technical and policy guidelines for health systems. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003.
  96. Green J, Borgatta L, Sia M, et al. Intervention rates for placental removal following induction abortion with misoprostol. Contraception 2007; 76:310.
  97. Fiala C, Safar P, Bygdeman M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Verifying the effectiveness of medical abortion; ultrasound versus hCG testing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003; 109:190.
  98. Harwood B, Meckstroth KR, Mishell DR, Jain JK. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels and endometrial thickness after medical abortion. Contraception 2001; 63:255.
  99. Luise C, Jermy K, Collons WP, Bourne TH. Expectant management of incomplete, spontaneous first-trimester miscarriage: outcome according to initial ultrasound criteria and value of follow-up visits. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002; 19:580.
  100. Creinin MD, Harwood B, Guido RS, et al. Endometrial thickness after misoprostol use for early pregnancy failure. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 86:22.
  101. Reynolds A, Ayres-de-Campos D, Costa MA, Montenegro N. How should success be defined when attempting medical resolution of first-trimester missed abortion? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 118:71.
  102. Reeves MF, Fox MC, Lohr PA, Creinin MD. Endometrial thickness following medical abortion is not predictive of subsequent surgical intervention. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 34:104.
  103. Honkanen H, Piaggio G, Hertzen H, et al. WHO multinational study of three misoprostol regimens after mifepristone for early medical abortion. BJOG 2004; 111:715.
  104. Ngai SW, Tang OS, Ho PC. Randomized comparison of vaginal (200 microg every 3 h) and oral (400 microg every 3 h) misoprostol when combined with mifepristone in termination of second trimester pregnancy. Hum Reprod 2000; 15:2205.
  105. Baird DT. Medical abortion in the first trimester. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2002; 16:221.
  106. Durocher J, Bynum J, León W, et al. High fever following postpartum administration of sublingual misoprostol. BJOG 2010; 117:845.
  107. Philip NM, Winikoff B, Moore K, Blumenthal P. A consensus regimen for early abortion with misoprostol. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2004; 87:281.
  108. Shannon C, Brothers LP, Philip NM, Winikoff B. Infection after medical abortion: a review of the literature. Contraception 2004; 70:183.
  109. Fischer M, Bhatnagar J, Guarner J, et al. Fatal toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:2352.
  110. Sinave C, Le Templier G, Blouin D, et al. Toxic shock syndrome due to Clostridium sordellii: a dramatic postpartum and postabortion disease. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:1441.
  111. Couzin J. infectious disease. RU-486-linked deaths open debate about risky bacteria. Science 2006; 312:986.
  112. Winikoff B. Clostridium sordellii infection in medical abortion. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:1447.
  113. Aronoff DM, Hao Y, Chung J, et al. Misoprostol impairs female reproductive tract innate immunity against Clostridium sordellii. J Immunol 2008; 180:8222.
  114. Jain JK, Harwood B, Meckstroth KR, Mishell DR. Early pregnancy termination with vaginal misoprostol combined with loperamide and acetaminophen prophylaxis. Contraception 2001; 63:217.
  115. Daskalakis G, Papantoniou N, Mesogitis S, et al. Sonographic findings and surgical management of a uterine rupture associated with the use of misoprostol during second-trimester abortion. J Ultrasound Med 2005; 24:1565.
  116. Misoprostol and teratology: Reviewing the evidence, Philip, N, Shannon, C, Winikoff, B (Eds), Population Council, New York 2002.
  117. Orioli IM, Castilla EE. Epidemiological assessment of misoprostol teratogenicity. BJOG 2000; 107:519.
  118. Castilla EE, Orioli IM. Teratogenicity of misoprostol: data from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). Am J Med Genet 1994; 51:161.
  119. Addar MH. Methotrexate embryopathy in a surviving intrauterine fetus after presumed diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26:1001.
  120. Csapo AI. The prospects of PGs in postconceptional therapy. Prostaglandins 1973; 3:245.
  121. Dodd JM, Crowther CA. Misoprostol versus cervagem for the induction of labour to terminate pregnancy in the second and third trimester: a systematic review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006; 125:3.