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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 31

of 'Mechanism of action of diuretics'

Localization of diuretic action in microperfused rat distal tubules: Ca and Na transport.
Costanzo LS
Am J Physiol. 1985;248(4 Pt 2):F527.
Experiments were performed in rats to examine the distal site of action of thiazide diuretics and the additive hypocalciuric properties of thiazides and amiloride. In clearance experiments, the maximal natriuretic and hypocalciuric dose of chlorothiazide was established. When amiloride was added, there was further augmentation of Ca reabsorption (P less than 0.025) but no additional natriuresis. Amiloride blunted thiazide-induced kaliuresis (P less than 0.001). Localization of the thiazide effect was studied in early and late distal tubules microperfused in vivo with control and thiazide-containing solutions. The maximally effective luminal drug concentration, 5 X 10(-4) M, inhibited Na transport (P less than 0.001) and enhanced Ca transport (P less than 0.01) in the early distal segments; late segments were on the average unaffected. It is suggested that thiazides interact with the distal convoluted tubule cell, whose predominant location is the early distal tubule. In two long distal tubules, with early and late segments, a maximal concentration of chlorothiazide increased Ca transport and decreased Na transport. Addition of 10(-5) M amiloride caused an additional increment in Ca reabsorption. As amiloride's action is located in the late distal tubule, it is suggested from these experiments that a basis for additive hypocalciuric actions of thiazides and amiloride is separate sites of action in the distal tubule.