Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Mastitis and breast abscess in children and adolescents

Chantay Banikarim, MD, MPH
Nirupama K De Silva, MD
Section Editors
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Jan E Drutz, MD
Amy B Middleman, MD, MPH, MS Ed
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD


The clinical features, evaluation, and management of mastitis and breast abscess in children older than two months and adolescents will be discussed in this topic review. Mastitis and breast abscess in infants, lactational mastitis, and breast infections in adult women are discussed separately.

(See "Mastitis and breast abscess in infants younger than two months".)

(See "Lactational mastitis".)

(See "Nonlactational mastitis in adults".)

(See "Primary breast abscess".)

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Feb 03, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Faden H. Mastitis in children from birth to 17 years. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24:1113.
  2. Greydanus DE, Matytsina L, Gains M. Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Prim Care 2006; 33:455.
  3. Baren JM. Breast lesions. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 5th ed, Fleisher GR, Ludwig S, Henretig FM (Eds), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 2006. p.193.
  4. Warren R, Degnim AC. Uncommon benign breast abnormalities in adolescents. Semin Plast Surg 2013; 27:26.
  5. Michala L, Tsigginou A, Zacharakis D, Dimitrakakis C. Breast disorders in girls and adolescents. Is there a need for a specialized service? J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2015; 28:91.
  6. Stricker T, Navratil F, Forster I, et al. Nonpuerperal mastitis in adolescents. J Pediatr 2006; 148:278.
  7. Templeman C, Hertweck SP. Breast disorders in the pediatric and adolescent patient. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2000; 27:19.
  8. DiVasta AD, Weldon C, Labow BI. The breast: Examination and lesions. In: Emans, Laufer, Goldstein's Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, 6th ed, Emans SJ, Laufer MR (Eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2012. p.405.
  9. Perl B, Gottehrer NP, Raveh D, et al. Cost-effectiveness of blood cultures for adult patients with cellulitis. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:1483.
  10. Valeur NS, Rahbar H, Chapman T. Ultrasound of pediatric breast masses: what to do with lumps and bumps. Pediatr Radiol 2015; 45:1584.
  11. Williams HJ, Hejmadi RK, England DW, Bradley SA. Imaging features of breast trauma: a pictorial review. Breast 2002; 11:107.
  12. Schwartz GF. Benign neoplasms and "inflammations" of the breast. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1982; 25:373.
  13. Ekmez F, Pirgon O, Bilgin H, Aydemir G. Cystic hygroma of the breast in a 5 year old boy presenting as a gynecomastia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16 Suppl 4:55.
  14. Kangesu T. Cystic hygroma of the breast in childhood. Br J Clin Pract 1990; 44:787.
  15. McHoney M, Munro F, Mackinlay G. Mammary duct ectasia in children: report of a short series and review of the literature. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87:527.
  16. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:147.
  17. Schwarz RJ, Shrestha R. Needle aspiration of breast abscesses. Am J Surg 2001; 182:117.