Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Management of rosacea

Lisa E Maier, MD
Section Editor
Mark V Dahl, MD
Deputy Editor
Abena O Ofori, MD


Rosacea is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disorder that primarily involves the central face. Common clinical features include facial erythema, telangiectasias, and inflammatory skin lesions. Many patients seek therapy due to concern over the effect of rosacea on physical appearance. As there is no cure for rosacea, treatment is focused on symptom suppression.

The management of rosacea will be discussed here. The pathogenesis and clinical features of rosacea are reviewed separately. (See "Rosacea: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis".)


Rosacea is divided into four subtypes that are defined by the presence of specific clinical features [1]. Identification of the disease subtype and severity of involvement are essential for the selection of appropriate therapy. (See "Rosacea: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis".)

The subtypes of rosacea include:

Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: Features of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea include transient facial erythema (flushing), centrofacial nontransient erythema, telangiectasias, skin sensitivity, edema, and a dry or scaly skin texture (picture 1A-B). (See "Rosacea: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis", section on 'Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea'.)

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Apr 25, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Wilkin J, Dahl M, Detmar M, et al. Standard classification of rosacea: Report of the National Rosacea Society Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584.
  2. Odom R, Dahl M, Dover J, et al. Standard management options for rosacea, part 2: options according to subtype. Cutis 2009; 84:97.
  3. Wilkin J. A role for vascular pathogenic mechanisms in rosacea: implications for patient care. Cutis 2008; 82:100.
  4. Dahl MV, Ross AJ, Schlievert PM. Temperature regulates bacterial protein production: possible role in rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50:266.
  5. Aksoy B, Altaykan-Hapa A, Egemen D, et al. The impact of rosacea on quality of life: effects of demographic and clinical characteristics and various treatment modalities. Br J Dermatol 2010; 163:719.
  6. Crawford GH, Pelle MT, James WD. Rosacea: I. Etiology, pathogenesis, and subtype classification. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 51:327.
  7. www.rosacea.org/rr/2002/summer/article_3.php (Accessed on December 28, 2010).
  8. Guarrera M, Parodi A, Cipriani C, et al. Flushing in rosacea: a possible mechanism. Arch Dermatol Res 1982; 272:311.
  9. Wilkin JK. Effect of subdepressor clonidine on flushing reactions in rosacea. Change in malar thermal circulation index during provoked flushing reactions. Arch Dermatol 1983; 119:211.
  10. Craige H, Cohen JB. Symptomatic treatment of idiopathic and rosacea-associated cutaneous flushing with propranolol. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:881.
  11. Wilkin JK. Effect of nadolol on flushing reactions in rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20:202.
  12. Brunner RL, Aragaki A, Barnabei V, et al. Menopausal symptom experience before and after stopping estrogen therapy in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause 2010; 17:946.
  13. Rada G, Capurro D, Pantoja T, et al. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; :CD004923.
  14. Hsu CC, Lee JY. Carvedilol for the treatment of refractory facial flushing and persistent erythema of rosacea. Arch Dermatol 2011; 147:1258.
  15. Hsu CC, Lee JY. Pronounced facial flushing and persistent erythema of rosacea effectively treated by carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenergic blocker. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67:491.
  16. Taub AF, Devita EC. Successful treatment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea with pulsed light and radiofrequency. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2008; 1:37.
  17. Katz B, Patel V. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of erythema, papules, pustules, and severe flushing consistent with rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol 2006; 5:6.
  18. Kassir R, Kolluru A, Kassir M. Intense pulsed light for the treatment of rosacea and telangiectasias. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2011; 13:216.
  19. Goldberg DJ. Lasers and light sources for rosacea. Cutis 2005; 75:22.
  20. Wilkin JK. Use of topical products for maintaining remission in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1999; 135:79.
  21. Dirschka T, Tronnier H, Fölster-Holst R. Epithelial barrier function and atopic diathesis in rosacea and perioral dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 2004; 150:1136.
  22. Del Rosso JQ. The use of moisturizers as an integral component of topical therapy for rosacea: clinical results based on the Assessment of Skin Characteristics Study. Cutis 2009; 84:72.
  23. Laquieze S, Czernielewski J, Baltas E. Beneficial use of Cetaphil moisturizing cream as part of a daily skin care regimen for individuals with rosacea. J Dermatolog Treat 2007; 18:158.
  24. Draelos ZD. Cosmetics in acne and rosacea. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2001; 20:209.
  25. Draelos ZD. Facial hygiene and comprehensive management of rosacea. Cutis 2004; 73:183.
  26. Pelle MT, Crawford GH, James WD. Rosacea: II. Therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 51:499.
  27. Nichols K, Desai N, Lebwohl MG. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea. Cutis 1998; 61:344.
  28. Draelos ZD. Colored facial cosmetics. Dermatol Clin 2000; 18:621.
  29. Papageorgiou P, Clayton W, Norwood S, et al. Treatment of rosacea with intense pulsed light: significant improvement and long-lasting results. Br J Dermatol 2008; 159:628.
  30. Mark KA, Sparacio RM, Voigt A, et al. Objective and quantitative improvement of rosacea-associated erythema after intense pulsed light treatment. Dermatol Surg 2003; 29:600.
  31. Alam M, Dover JS, Arndt KA. Treatment of facial telangiectasia with variable-pulse high-fluence pulsed-dye laser: comparison of efficacy with fluences immediately above and below the purpura threshold. Dermatol Surg 2003; 29:681.
  32. Jasim ZF, Woo WK, Handley JM. Long-pulsed (6-ms) pulsed dye laser treatment of rosacea-associated telangiectasia using subpurpuric clinical threshold. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30:37.
  33. Tan SR, Tope WD. Pulsed dye laser treatment of rosacea improves erythema, symptomatology, and quality of life. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 51:592.
  34. Clark SM, Lanigan SW, Marks R. Laser treatment of erythema and telangiectasia associated with rosacea. Lasers Med Sci 2002; 17:26.
  35. Lonne-Rahm S, Nordlind K, Edström DW, et al. Laser treatment of rosacea: a pathoetiological study. Arch Dermatol 2004; 140:1345.
  36. Tan ST, Bialostocki A, Armstrong JR. Pulsed dye laser therapy for rosacea. Br J Plast Surg 2004; 57:303.
  37. Schroeter CA, Haaf-von Below S, Neumann HA. Effective treatment of rosacea using intense pulsed light systems. Dermatol Surg 2005; 31:1285.
  38. Maxwell EL, Ellis DA, Manis H. Acne rosacea: effectiveness of 532 nm laser on the cosmetic appearance of the skin. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010; 39:292.
  39. Iyer S, Fitzpatrick RE. Long-pulsed dye laser treatment for facial telangiectasias and erythema: evaluation of a single purpuric pass versus multiple subpurpuric passes. Dermatol Surg 2005; 31:898.
  40. Rohrer TE, Chatrath V, Iyengar V. Does pulse stacking improve the results of treatment with variable-pulse pulsed-dye lasers? Dermatol Surg 2004; 30:163.
  41. Tanghetti E, Sherr EA, Sierra R, Mirkov M. The effects of pulse dye laser double-pass treatment intervals on depth of vessel coagulation. Lasers Surg Med 2006; 38:16.
  42. Neuhaus IM, Zane LT, Tope WD. Comparative efficacy of nonpurpuragenic pulsed dye laser and intense pulsed light for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35:920.
  43. Bernstein EF, Kligman A. Rosacea treatment using the new-generation, high-energy, 595 nm, long pulse-duration pulsed-dye laser. Lasers Surg Med 2008; 40:233.
  44. Nielsen PG. A double-blind study of I% metronidazole cream versus systemic oxytetracycline therapy for rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1983; 109:63.
  45. Thiboutot D, Thieroff-Ekerdt R, Graupe K. Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid (15%) gel as a new treatment for papulopustular rosacea: results from two vehicle-controlled, randomized phase III studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 48:836.
  46. Maddin S. A comparison of topical azelaic acid 20% cream and topical metronidazole 0.75% cream in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40:961.
  47. Wilkin JK, DeWitt S. Treatment of rosacea: topical clindamycin versus oral tetracycline. Int J Dermatol 1993; 32:65.
  48. Breneman D, Savin R, VandePol C, et al. Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial of once-daily benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin topical gel in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe rosacea. Int J Dermatol 2004; 43:381.
  49. Sneddon IB. A clinical trial of tetracycline in rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1966; 78:649.
  50. Bakar O, Demirçay Z, Gürbüz O. Therapeutic potential of azithromycin in rosacea. Int J Dermatol 2004; 43:151.
  51. Webster GF. An open-label, community-based, 12-week assessment of the effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with doxycycline 40 mg (30-mg immediate-release and 10-mg delayed-release beads). Cutis 2010; 86:7.
  52. Torresani C, Pavesi A, Manara GC. Clarithromycin versus doxycycline in the treatment of rosacea. Int J Dermatol 1997; 36:942.
  53. Fowler J, Jarratt M, Moore A, et al. Once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0·5% is a novel treatment for moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of two multicentre, randomized and vehicle-controlled studies. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166:633.
  54. Fowler J Jr, Jackson M, Moore A, et al. Efficacy and safety of once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% for the treatment of moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of two randomized, double-blind, and vehicle-controlled pivotal studies. J Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12:650.
  55. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/204708lbl.pdf (Accessed on August 27, 2013).
  56. Layton AM, Schaller M, Homey B, et al. Brimonidine gel 0.33% rapidly improves patient-reported outcomes by controlling facial erythema of rosacea: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015; 29:2405.
  57. Moore A, Kempers S, Murakawa G, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% for the treatment of moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea: results of a 1-year open-label study. J Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13:56.
  58. Routt ET, Levitt JO. Rebound erythema and burning sensation from a new topical brimonidine tartrate gel 0.33%. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014; 70:e37.
  59. Ilkovitch D, Pomerantz RG. Brimonidine effective but may lead to significant rebound erythema. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014; 70:e109.
  60. Gillihan R, Nguyen T, Fischer R, et al. Erythema in Skin Adjacent to Area of Long-term Brimonidine Treatment for Rosacea: A Novel Adverse Reaction. JAMA Dermatol 2015; 151:1136.
  61. Docherty JR, Steinhoff M, Lorton D, et al. Multidisciplinary Consideration of Potential Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Paradoxical Erythema with Topical Brimonidine Therapy. Adv Ther 2016; 33:1885.
  62. www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/208552s000lbl.pdf (Accessed on March 24, 2017).
  63. Ertl GA, Levine N, Kligman AM. A comparison of the efficacy of topical tretinoin and low-dose oral isotretinoin in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1994; 130:319.
  64. Vienne MP, Ochando N, Borrel MT, et al. Retinaldehyde alleviates rosacea. Dermatology 1999; 199 Suppl 1:53.
  65. Weber TM, Ceilley RI, Buerger A, et al. Skin tolerance, efficacy, and quality of life of patients with red facial skin using a skin care regimen containing Licochalcone A. J Cosmet Dermatol 2006; 5:227.
  66. Thompson BJ, Furniss M, Zhao W, et al. An oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor (apremilast) for inflammatory rosacea in adults: a pilot study. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150:1013.
  67. Garg G, Thami GP. Clinical efficacy of tacrolimus in rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:239.
  68. Bamford JT, Elliott BA, Haller IV. Tacrolimus effect on rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50:107.
  69. van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Carter B, et al. Interventions for rosacea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; :CD003262.
  70. Miyachi Y. Potential antioxidant mechanism of action for metronidazole: implications for rosacea management. Adv Ther 2001; 18:237.
  71. Dahl MV, Jarratt M, Kaplan D, et al. Once-daily topical metronidazole cream formulations in the treatment of the papules and pustules of rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 45:723.
  72. Yoo J, Reid DC, Kimball AB. Metronidazole in the treatment of rosacea: do formulation, dosing, and concentration matter? J Drugs Dermatol 2006; 5:317.
  73. Bleicher PA, Charles JH, Sober AJ. Topical metronidazole therapy for rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123:609.
  74. Breneman DL, Stewart D, Hevia O, et al. A double-blind, multicenter clinical trial comparing efficacy of once-daily metronidazole 1 percent cream to vehicle in patients with rosacea. Cutis 1998; 61:44.
  75. Wolf JE Jr, Del Rosso JQ. The CLEAR trial: results of a large community-based study of metronidazole gel in rosacea. Cutis 2007; 79:73.
  76. Elewski BE, Fleischer AB Jr, Pariser DM. A comparison of 15% azelaic acid gel and 0.75% metronidazole gel in the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea: results of a randomized trial. Arch Dermatol 2003; 139:1444.
  77. Dahl MV, Katz HI, Krueger GG, et al. Topical metronidazole maintains remissions of rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:679.
  78. Coda AB, Hata T, Miller J, et al. Cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, and serine protease activity is inhibited during treatment of rosacea with azelaic acid 15% gel. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 69:570.
  79. Mastrofrancesco A, Ottaviani M, Aspite N, et al. Azelaic acid modulates the inflammatory response in normal human keratinocytes through PPARgamma activation. Exp Dermatol 2010; 19:813.
  80. Akamatsu H, Komura J, Asada Y, et al. Inhibitory effect of azelaic acid on neutrophil functions: a possible cause for its efficacy in treating pathogenetically unrelated diseases. Arch Dermatol Res 1991; 283:162.
  81. Bjerke R, Fyrand O, Graupe K. Double-blind comparison of azelaic acid 20% cream and its vehicle in treatment of papulo-pustular rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol 1999; 79:456.
  82. Thiboutot DM, Fleischer AB Jr, Del Rosso JQ, Graupe K. Azelaic acid 15% gel once daily versus twice daily in papulopustular rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol 2008; 7:541.
  83. Colón LE, Johnson LA, Gottschalk RW. Cumulative irritation potential among metronidazole gel 1%, metronidazole gel 0.75%, and azelaic acid gel 15%. Cutis 2007; 79:317.
  84. Ziel K, Yelverton CB, Balkrishnan R, Feldman SR. Cumulative irritation potential of metronidazole gel compared to azelaic acid gel after repeated applications to healthy skin. J Drugs Dermatol 2005; 4:727.
  85. Wolf JE Jr, Kerrouche N, Arsonnaud S. Efficacy and safety of once-daily metronidazole 1% gel compared with twice-daily azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of rosacea. Cutis 2006; 77:3.
  86. Mostafa FF, El Harras MA, Gomaa SM, et al. Comparative study of some treatment modalities of rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:22.
  87. Soolantra - ivermectin cream. US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved product information. Revised December, 2014. US National Library of Medicine. (Available online at www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov (accessed Januray 5, 2015)).
  88. Stein L, Kircik L, Fowler J, et al. Efficacy and safety of ivermectin 1% cream in treatment of papulopustular rosacea: results of two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled pivotal studies. J Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13:316.
  89. Stein Gold L, Kircik L, Fowler J, et al. Long-term safety of ivermectin 1% cream vs azelaic acid 15% gel in treating inflammatory lesions of rosacea: results of two 40-week controlled, investigator-blinded trials. J Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13:1380.
  90. Taieb A, Ortonne JP, Ruzicka T, et al. Superiority of ivermectin 1% cream over metronidazole 0·75% cream in treating inflammatory lesions of rosacea: a randomized, investigator-blinded trial. Br J Dermatol 2015; 172:1103.
  91. Taieb A, Khemis A, Ruzicka T, et al. Maintenance of remission following successful treatment of papulopustular rosacea with ivermectin 1% cream vs. metronidazole 0.75% cream: 36-week extension of the ATTRACT randomized study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016; 30:829.
  92. Sauder DN, Miller R, Gratton D, et al. The treatment of rosacea: the safety and efficacy of sodium sulfacetamide 10% and sulfur 5% lotion (Novacet) is demonstrated in a double-blind study. J Dermatol Treat 1997; 8:79.
  93. Davis GF, Glazer SD, Medansky RS. Successful treatment of rosacea with a novel formulation of sodium sulfacetamide 10% and sulfur 5% (Novacet,) topical lotion. J Geriatr Dermatol 1994; 2:140.
  94. Torok HM, Webster G, Dunlap FE, et al. Combination sodium sulfacetamide 10% and sulfur 5% cream with sunscreens versus metronidazole 0.75% cream for rosacea. Cutis 2005; 75:357.
  95. Mills OH Jr, Kligman AM. Letter: Topically applied erythromycin in rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112:553.
  96. Altinyazar HC, Koca R, Tekin NS, Eştürk E. Adapalene vs. metronidazole gel for the treatment of rosacea. Int J Dermatol 2005; 44:252.
  97. Chang AL, Alora-Palli M, Lima XT, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of clindamycin 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% combination gel for the treatment of acne rosacea over 12 weeks. J Drugs Dermatol 2012; 11:333.
  98. Koçak M, Yağli S, Vahapoğlu G, Ekşioğlu M. Permethrin 5% cream versus metronidazole 0.75% gel for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Dermatology 2002; 205:265.
  99. Weissenbacher S, Merkl J, Hildebrandt B, et al. Pimecrolimus cream 1% for papulopustular rosacea: a randomized vehicle-controlled double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol 2007; 156:728.
  100. Karabulut AA, Izol Serel B, Eksioglu HM. A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face study with pimecrolimus cream 1% for papulopustular rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008; 22:729.
  101. Fujiwara S, Okubo Y, Irisawa R, Tsuboi R. Rosaceiform dermatitis associated with topical tacrolimus treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 62:1050.
  102. Korting HC, Schöllmann C. Tetracycline actions relevant to rosacea treatment. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22:287.
  103. Yamasaki K, Di Nardo A, Bardan A, et al. Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea. Nat Med 2007; 13:975.
  104. Conde JF, Yelverton CB, Balkrishnan R, et al. Managing rosacea: a review of the use of metronidazole alone and in combination with oral antibiotics. J Drugs Dermatol 2007; 6:495.
  105. Korting HC, Schöllmann C. Current topical and systemic approaches to treatment of rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:876.
  106. Marks R, Ellis J. Comparative effectiveness of tetracycline and ampicillin in rosacea. A controlled trial. Lancet 1971; 2:1049.
  107. Akhyani M, Ehsani AH, Ghiasi M, Jafari AK. Comparison of efficacy of azithromycin vs. doxycycline in the treatment of rosacea: a randomized open clinical trial. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47:284.
  108. Del Rosso JQ, Webster GF, Jackson M, et al. Two randomized phase III clinical trials evaluating anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40-mg doxycycline, USP capsules) administered once daily for treatment of rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007; 56:791.
  109. Sanchez J, Somolinos AL, Almodóvar PI, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the combined effect of doxycycline hyclate 20-mg tablets and metronidazole 0.75% topical lotion in the treatment of rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:791.
  110. Del Rosso JQ, Schlessinger J, Werschler P. Comparison of anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline versus doxycycline 100 mg in the treatment of rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol 2008; 7:573.
  111. Fowler JF Jr. Combined effect of anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40-mg doxycycline, usp monohydrate controlled-release capsules) and metronidazole topical gel 1% in the treatment of rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol 2007; 6:641.
  112. Saihan EM, Burton JL. A double-blind trial of metronidazole versus oxytetracycline therapy for rosacea. Br J Dermatol 1980; 102:443.
  113. Hoting E, Paul E, Plewig G. Treatment of rosacea with isotretinoin. Int J Dermatol 1986; 25:660.
  114. Erdogan FG, Yurtsever P, Aksoy D, Eskioglu F. Efficacy of low-dose isotretinoin in patients with treatment-resistant rosacea. Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:884.
  115. Gollnick H, Blume-Peytavi U, Szabó EL, et al. Systemic isotretinoin in the treatment of rosacea - doxycycline- and placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2010; 8:505.
  116. Sbidian E, Vicaut É, Chidiack H, et al. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of Oral Low-Dose Isotretinoin for Difficult-To-Treat Papulopustular Rosacea. J Invest Dermatol 2016; 136:1124.
  117. Turjanmaa K, Reunala T. Isotretinoin treatment of rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol 1987; 67:89.
  118. Taub AF. Treatment of rosacea with intense pulsed light. J Drugs Dermatol 2003; 2:254.
  119. Lowe NJ, Behr KL, Fitzpatrick R, et al. Flash lamp pumped dye laser for rosacea-associated telangiectasia and erythema. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1991; 17:522.
  120. Togsverd-Bo K, Wiegell SR, Wulf HC, Haedersdal M. Short and limited effect of long-pulsed dye laser alone and in combination with photodynamic therapy for inflammatory rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:200.
  121. Berg M, Edström DW. Flashlamp pulsed dye laser (FPDL) did not cure papulopustular rosacea. Lasers Surg Med 2004; 34:266.
  122. Bryld LE, Jemec GB. Photodynamic therapy in a series of rosacea patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007; 21:1199.
  123. Nybaek H, Jemec GB. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of rosacea. Dermatology 2005; 211:135.
  124. Stone DU, Chodosh J. Ocular rosacea: an update on pathogenesis and therapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2004; 15:499.
  125. Tanzi EL, Weinberg JM. The ocular manifestations of rosacea. Cutis 2001; 68:112.
  126. Nazir SA, Murphy S, Siatkowski RM, et al. Ocular rosacea in childhood. Am J Ophthalmol 2004; 137:138.
  127. Barnhorst DA Jr, Foster JA, Chern KC, Meisler DM. The efficacy of topical metronidazole in the treatment of ocular rosacea. Ophthalmology 1996; 103:1880.
  128. Kligman AM. Ocular rosacea. Current concepts and therapy. Arch Dermatol 1997; 133:89.
  129. Bakar O, Demircay Z, Toker E, Cakir S. Ocular signs, symptoms and tear function tests of papulopustular rosacea patients receiving azithromycin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:544.
  130. Schechter BA, Katz RS, Friedman LS. Efficacy of topical cyclosporine for the treatment of ocular rosacea. Adv Ther 2009; 26:651.
  131. Aloi F, Tomasini C, Soro E, Pippione M. The clinicopathologic spectrum of rhinophyma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42:468.
  132. Plewig G, Nikolowski J, Wolff HH. Action of isotretinoin in acne rosacea and gram-negative folliculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 6:766.
  133. Madan V, Ferguson JE, August PJ. Carbon dioxide laser treatment of rhinophyma: a review of 124 patients. Br J Dermatol 2009; 161:814.
  134. Tahery J, Zakaria R, Natt RS. Diode laser treatment of rhinophyma. Clin Otolaryngol 2010; 35:442.
  135. Apikian M, Goodman GJ, Roberts S. Management of mild to moderate rhinophyma with a 1,450-nm diode laser: report of five patients. Dermatol Surg 2007; 33:847.
  136. Kempiak SJ, Lee PW, Pelle MT. Rhinophyma treated with cryosurgery. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35:543.
  137. Sadick H, Goepel B, Bersch C, et al. Rhinophyma: diagnosis and treatment options for a disfiguring tumor of the nose. Ann Plast Surg 2008; 61:114.
  138. Helm KF, Menz J, Gibson LE, Dicken CH. A clinical and histopathologic study of granulomatous rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 25:1038.
  139. Sánchez JL, Berlingeri-Ramos AC, Dueño DV. Granulomatous rosacea. Am J Dermatopathol 2008; 30:6.
  140. Drolet B, Paller AS. Childhood rosacea. Pediatr Dermatol 1992; 9:22.
  141. Khokhar O, Khachemoune A. A case of granulomatous rosacea: sorting granulomatous rosacea from other granulomatous diseases that affect the face. Dermatol Online J 2004; 10:6.
  142. Schewach-Millet M, Shpiro D, Trau H. Granulomatous rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988; 18:1362.
  143. Smith KW. Perioral dermatitis with histopathologic features of granulomatous rosacea: successful treatment with isotretinoin. Cutis 1990; 46:413.
  144. Krause MH, Torricelli R, Kündig T, et al. [Dapsone in granulomatous rosacea]. Hautarzt 1997; 48:246.
  145. Cunha PR, Rossi AB. Pimecrolimus cream 1% is effective in a case of granulomatous rosacea. Acta Derm Venereol 2006; 86:71.
  146. Gül U, Gönül M, Kiliç A, et al. A case of granulomatous rosacea successfully treated with pimecrolimus cream. J Dermatolog Treat 2008; 19:313.
  147. Lane JE, Khachemoune A. Use of intense pulsed light to treat refractory granulomatous rosacea. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36:571.
  148. Kroshinsky D, Glick SA. Pediatric rosacea. Dermatol Ther 2006; 19:196.
  149. Chamaillard M, Mortemousque B, Boralevi F, et al. Cutaneous and ocular signs of childhood rosacea. Arch Dermatol 2008; 144:167.
  150. Fender AB, Ignatovich Y, Mercurio MG. Pyoderma faciale. Cutis 2008; 81:488.
  151. Jansen T, Plewig G, Kligman AM. Diagnosis and treatment of rosacea fulminans. Dermatology 1994; 188:251.
  152. Strauss JS. Rosacea fulminans. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001; 15:385.
  153. Ormond P, Rogers S. Case 3. Pyoderma faciale (PF) (rosacea fulminans). Clin Exp Dermatol 2003; 28:107.
  154. Bormann G, Gaber G, Fischer M, Marsch WC. Dapsone in rosacea fulminans. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001; 15:465.