Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Management of alopecia areata

Andrew G Messenger, MD, FRCP
Section Editors
Robert P Dellavalle, MD, PhD, MSPH
Maria Hordinsky, MD
Deputy Editor
Abena O Ofori, MD


Alopecia areata is a chronic, relapsing immune-mediated inflammatory disorder affecting hair follicles resulting in nonscarring hair loss. The severity of the disorder ranges from small patches of alopecia on any hair-bearing area to the complete loss of scalp, eyebrow, eyelash, and body hair.

Although up to 50 percent of patients who present with patchy alopecia areata experience spontaneous hair regrowth within one year, most will relapse [1]. The unpredictable course of the disease and the psychological distress associated with hair loss prompt many patients to seek therapy. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of alopecia areata", section on 'Course of disease'.)

The management of alopecia areata involves both addressing the psychological needs of the patient and offering treatment to patients who desire intervention. A variety of topical, intralesional, and systemic agents, as well as devices, have been used for alopecia areata, but the response to treatment varies widely, and few well-designed clinical trials have evaluated these therapies [2].

Options for the management of alopecia areata will be discussed here. The clinical manifestations and diagnosis of the disorder are reviewed separately. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of alopecia areata".)


Based upon the relative safety and the available, although limited, evidence for the efficacy of these agents, intralesional or topical corticosteroids are the initial treatment for most patients with patchy alopecia areata [1]. Topical immunotherapy can be used as first-line treatment for patients with extensive disease (greater than 50 percent scalp hair loss).

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 24, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Messenger AG, McKillop J, Farrant P, et al. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of alopecia areata 2012. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166:916.
  2. Delamere FM, Sladden MM, Dobbins HM, Leonardi-Bee J. Interventions for alopecia areata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; :CD004413.
  3. Porter D, Burton JL. A comparison of intra-lesional triamcinolone hexacetonide and triamcinolone acetonide in alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 1971; 85:272.
  4. Kubeyinje EP. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide in alopecia areata amongst 62 Saudi Arabs. East Afr Med J 1994; 71:674.
  5. Alkhalifah A, Alsantali A, Wang E, et al. Alopecia areata update: part II. Treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 62:191.
  6. Campbell LS, Chevalier M, Levy RA, Rhodes A. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression related to topical glucocorticoid therapy in a child with psoriatic exfoliative erythroderma. Pediatr Dermatol 2012; 29:101.
  7. Walsh P, Aeling JL, Huff L, Weston WL. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression by superpotent topical steroids. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 29:501.
  8. Keipert JA, Kelly R. Temporary Cushing's syndrome from percutaneous absorption of betamethasone 17-valerate. Med J Aust 1971; 1:542.
  9. Ro BI. Alopecia areata in Korea (1982-1994). J Dermatol 1995; 22:858.
  10. Chang KH, Rojhirunsakool S, Goldberg LJ. Treatment of severe alopecia areata with intralesional steroid injections. J Drugs Dermatol 2009; 8:909.
  11. Charuwichitratana S, Wattanakrai P, Tanrattanakorn S. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in the treatment of alopecia areata with 0.25% desoximetasone cream. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136:1276.
  12. Kuldeep C, Singhal H, Khare AK, et al. Randomized comparison of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized alopecia areata. Int J Trichology 2011; 3:20.
  13. Tosti A, Iorizzo M, Botta GL, Milani M. Efficacy and safety of a new clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam in alopecia areata: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006; 20:1243.
  14. Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Pazzaglia M, Vincenzi C. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% under occlusion in the treatment of alopecia totalis/universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49:96.
  15. Lenane P, Macarthur C, Parkin PC, et al. Clobetasol propionate, 0.05%, vs hydrocortisone, 1%, for alopecia areata in children: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150:47.
  16. Rokhsar CK, Shupack JL, Vafai JJ, Washenik K. Efficacy of topical sensitizers in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39:751.
  17. van der Steen PH, van Baar HM, Perret CM, Happle R. Treatment of alopecia areata with diphenylcyclopropenone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 24:253.
  18. Happle R. Antigenic competition as a therapeutic concept for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res 1980; 267:109.
  19. Herbst V, Zöller M, Kissling S, et al. Diphenylcyclopropenone treatment of alopecia areata induces apoptosis of perifollicular lymphocytes. Eur J Dermatol 2006; 16:537.
  20. Happle R, Klein HM, Macher E. Topical immunotherapy changes the composition of the peribulbar infiltrate in alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res 1986; 278:214.
  21. Wasyłyszyn T, Kozłowski W, Zabielski SL. Changes in distribution pattern of CD8 lymphocytes in the scalp in alopecia areata during treatment with diphencyprone. Arch Dermatol Res 2007; 299:231.
  22. Hoffmann R, Wenzel E, Huth A, et al. Cytokine mRNA levels in Alopecia areata before and after treatment with the contact allergen diphenylcyclopropenone. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 103:530.
  23. Price VH. Treatment of hair loss. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:964.
  24. Cotellessa C, Peris K, Caracciolo E, et al. The use of topical diphenylcyclopropenone for the treatment of extensive alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44:73.
  25. Aghaei S. Topical immunotherapy of severe alopecia areata with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP): experience in an Iranian population. BMC Dermatol 2005; 5:6.
  26. Dall'oglio F, Nasca MR, Musumeci ML, et al. Topical immunomodulator therapy with squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is effective treatment for severe alopecia areata (AA): results of an open-label, paired-comparison, clinical trial. J Dermatolog Treat 2005; 16:10.
  27. Wiseman MC, Shapiro J, MacDonald N, Lui H. Predictive model for immunotherapy of alopecia areata with diphencyprone. Arch Dermatol 2001; 137:1063.
  28. Ajith C, Gupta S, Kanwar AJ. Efficacy and safety of the topical sensitizer squaric acid dibutyl ester in Alopecia areata and factors influencing the outcome. J Drugs Dermatol 2006; 5:262.
  29. Kratka J, Goerz G, Vizethum W, Strobel R. Dinitrochlorobenzene: influence on the cytochrome P-450 system and mutagenic effects. Arch Dermatol Res 1979; 266:315.
  30. Garg S, Messenger AG. Alopecia areata: evidence-based treatments. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2009; 28:15.
  31. Durdu M, Özcan D, Baba M, Seçkin D. Efficacy and safety of diphenylcyclopropenone alone or in combination with anthralin in the treatment of chronic extensive alopecia areata: a retrospective case series. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 72:640.
  32. Vedak P, Kroshinsky D. Squaric acid sensitization is not required for response in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 73:471.
  33. Price VH. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of topical minoxidil in extensive alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16:730.
  34. Fenton DA, Wilkinson JD. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 287:1015.
  35. Vestey JP, Savin JA. A trial of 1% minoxidil used topically for severe alopecia areata. Acta Derm Venereol 1986; 66:179.
  36. Fiedler-Weiss VC. Topical minoxidil solution (1% and 5%) in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 16:745.
  37. Lucky AW, Piacquadio DJ, Ditre CM, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 5% and 2% topical minoxidil solutions in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 50:541.
  38. Olsen EA, Dunlap FE, Funicella T, et al. A randomized clinical trial of 5% topical minoxidil versus 2% topical minoxidil and placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47:377.
  39. Olsen EA, Whiting D, Bergfeld W, et al. A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of a novel formulation of 5% minoxidil topical foam versus placebo in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007; 57:767.
  40. Claudy AL, Gagnaire D. PUVA treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1983; 119:975.
  41. Lassus A, Eskelinen A, Johansson E. Treatment of alopecia areata with three different PUVA modalities. Photodermatol 1984; 1:141.
  42. Mitchell AJ, Douglass MC. Topical photochemotherapy for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 1985; 12:644.
  43. van der Schaar WW, Sillevis Smith JH. An evaluation of PUVA-therapy for alopecia areata. Dermatologica 1984; 168:250.
  44. Taylor CR, Hawk JL. PUVA treatment of alopecia areata partialis, totalis and universalis: audit of 10 years' experience at St John's Institute of Dermatology. Br J Dermatol 1995; 133:914.
  45. Healy E, Rogers S. PUVA treatment for alopecia areata--does it work? A retrospective review of 102 cases. Br J Dermatol 1993; 129:42.
  46. Olsen EA, Carson SC, Turney EA. Systemic steroids with or without 2% topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128:1467.
  47. Winter RJ, Kern F, Blizzard RM. Prednisone therapy for alopecia areata. A follow-up report. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112:1549.
  48. Kar BR, Handa S, Dogra S, Kumar B. Placebo-controlled oral pulse prednisolone therapy in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52:287.
  49. Vañó-Galván S, Hermosa-Gelbard Á, Sánchez-Neila N, et al. Pulse corticosteroid therapy with oral dexamethasone for the treatment of adult alopecia totalis and universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74:1005.
  50. Sladden MJ, Hutchinson PE. Is oral pulsed prednisolone useful in alopecia areata? Critical appraisal of a randomized trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:1100.
  51. Ellis CN, Brown MF, Voorhees JJ. Sulfasalazine for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:541.
  52. Aghaei S. An uncontrolled, open label study of sulfasalazine in severe alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2008; 74:611.
  53. Rashidi T, Mahd AA. Treatment of persistent alopecia areata with sulfasalazine. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47:850.
  54. Joly P. The use of methotrexate alone or in combination with low doses of oral corticosteroids in the treatment of alopecia totalis or universalis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:632.
  55. Gupta AK, Ellis CN, Cooper KD, et al. Oral cyclosporine for the treatment of alopecia areata. A clinical and immunohistochemical analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 22:242.
  56. Phillips MA, Graves JE, Nunley JR. Alopecia areata presenting in 2 kidney-pancreas transplant recipients taking cyclosporine. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:S252.
  57. Dyall-Smith D. Alopecia areata in a renal transplant recipient on cyclosporin. Australas J Dermatol 1996; 37:226.
  58. Cerottini JP, Panizzon RG, de Viragh PA. Multifocal alopecia areata during systemic cyclosporine A therapy. Dermatology 1999; 198:415.
  59. Davies MG, Bowers PW. Alopecia areata arising in patients receiving cyclosporin immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol 1995; 132:835.
  60. Vañó-Galván S, Hermosa-Gelbard Á, Sánchez-Neila N, et al. Treatment of recalcitrant adult alopecia areata universalis with oral azathioprine. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74:1007.
  61. Farshi S, Mansouri P, Safar F, Khiabanloo SR. Could azathioprine be considered as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of alopecia areata? A pilot study. Int J Dermatol 2010; 49:1188.
  62. Gorcey L, Gordon Spratt EA, Leger MC. Alopecia universalis successfully treated with adalimumab. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150:1341.
  63. Strober BE, Siu K, Alexis AF, et al. Etanercept does not effectively treat moderate to severe alopecia areata: an open-label study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52:1082.
  64. Chaves Y, Duarte G, Ben-Said B, et al. Alopecia areata universalis during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-TNF-alpha antibody (adalimumab). Dermatology 2008; 217:380.
  65. Pelivani N, Hassan AS, Braathen LR, et al. Alopecia areata universalis elicited during treatment with adalimumab. Dermatology 2008; 216:320.
  66. Garcia Bartels N, Lee HH, Worm M, et al. Development of alopecia areata universalis in a patient receiving adalimumab. Arch Dermatol 2006; 142:1654.
  67. Fabre C, Dereure O. Worsening alopecia areata and de novo occurrence of multiple halo nevi in a patient receiving infliximab. Dermatology 2008; 216:185.
  68. Ettefagh L, Nedorost S, Mirmirani P. Alopecia areata in a patient using infliximab: new insights into the role of tumor necrosis factor on human hair follicles. Arch Dermatol 2004; 140:1012.
  69. Tosti A, Pazzaglia M, Starace M, et al. Alopecia areata during treatment with biologic agents. Arch Dermatol 2006; 142:1653.
  70. Pan Y, Rao NA. Alopecia areata during etanercept therapy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2009; 17:127.
  71. Posten W, Swan J. Recurrence of alopecia areata in a patient receiving etanercept injections. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141:759.
  72. Strober BE, Menon K, McMichael A, et al. Alefacept for severe alopecia areata: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Dermatol 2009; 145:1262.
  73. Heffernan MP, Hurley MY, Martin KS, et al. Alefacept for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141:1513.
  74. Bui K, Polisetty S, Gilchrist H, et al. Successful treatment of alopecia universalis with alefacept: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis 2008; 81:431.
  75. Kaelin U, Hassan AS, Braathen LR, Yawalkar N. Treatment of alopecia areata partim universalis with efalizumab. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:529.
  76. Kolde G, Meffert H, Rowe E. Successful treatment of alopecia areata with efalizumab. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008; 22:1519.
  77. Price VH, Hordinsky MK, Olsen EA, et al. Subcutaneous efalizumab is not effective in the treatment of alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 58:395.
  78. US Food and Drug Administration press announcement. www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2009/ucm149561.htm (Accessed on April 23, 2010).
  79. Zakaria W, Passeron T, Ostovari N, et al. 308-nm excimer laser therapy in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 51:837.
  80. Novák Z, Bónis B, Baltás E, et al. Xenon chloride ultraviolet B laser is more effective in treating psoriasis and in inducing T cell apoptosis than narrow-band ultraviolet B. J Photochem Photobiol B 2002; 67:32.
  81. Al-Mutairi N. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata. Dermatol Surg 2007; 33:1483.
  82. Raulin C, Gündogan C, Greve B, Gebert S. [Excimer laser therapy of alopecia areata--side-by-side evaluation of a representative area]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2005; 3:524.
  83. Gundogan C, Greve B, Raulin C. Treatment of alopecia areata with the 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser: case report of two successful treatments with the excimer laser. Lasers Surg Med 2004; 34:86.
  84. Al-Mutairi N. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2009; 26:547.
  85. Talpur R, Vu J, Bassett R, et al. Phase I/II randomized bilateral half-head comparison of topical bexarotene 1% gel for alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009; 61:592.e1.
  86. Ehsani AH, Toosi S, Seirafi H, et al. Capsaicin vs. clobetasol for the treatment of localized alopecia areata. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23:1451.
  87. Hordinsky M, Ericson M. Autoimmunity: alopecia areata. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2004; 9:73.
  88. Trink A, Sorbellini E, Bezzola P, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, half-head study to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 2013; 169:690.
  89. Shin BS, Furuhashi T, Nakamura M, et al. Impaired inhibitory function of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in alopecia areata. J Dermatol Sci 2013; 70:141.
  90. Castela E, Le Duff F, Butori C, et al. Effects of low-dose recombinant interleukin 2 to promote T-regulatory cells in alopecia areata. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150:748.
  91. Stephan F, Habre M, Tomb R. Successful treatment of alopecia totalis with hydroxychloroquine: report of 2 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013; 68:1048.
  92. Liu LY, Craiglow BG, Dai F, King BA. Tofacitinib for the treatment of severe alopecia areata and variants: A study of 90 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 76:22.
  93. Craiglow BG, King BA. Killing two birds with one stone: oral tofacitinib reverses alopecia universalis in a patient with plaque psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 2014; 134:2988.
  94. Dhayalan A, King BA. Tofacitinib Citrate for the Treatment of Nail Dystrophy Associated With Alopecia Universalis. JAMA Dermatol 2016; 152:492.
  95. Craiglow BG, Liu LY, King BA. Tofacitinib for the treatment of alopecia areata and variants in adolescents. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 76:29.
  96. Gupta AK, Carviel JL, Abramovits W. Efficacy of tofacitinib in treatment of alopecia universalis in two patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016; 30:1373.
  97. Ibrahim O, Bayart CB, Hogan S, et al. Treatment of Alopecia Areata With Tofacitinib. JAMA Dermatol 2017; 153:600.
  98. Papp KA, Menter A, Strober B, et al. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of psoriasis: a Phase 2b randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging study. Br J Dermatol 2012; 167:668.
  99. Wollenhaupt J, Silverfield J, Lee EB, et al. Safety and efficacy of tofacitinib, an oral janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in open-label, longterm extension studies. J Rheumatol 2014; 41:837.
  100. www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm327152.htm (Accessed on July 01, 2014).
  101. Xing L, Dai Z, Jabbari A, et al. Alopecia areata is driven by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is reversed by JAK inhibition. Nat Med 2014; 20:1043.
  102. Harris JE, Rashighi M, Nguyen N, et al. Rapid skin repigmentation on oral ruxolitinib in a patient with coexistent vitiligo and alopecia areata (AA). J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74:370.
  103. Pieri L, Guglielmelli P, Vannucchi AM. Ruxolitinib-induced reversal of alopecia universalis in a patient with essential thrombocythemia. Am J Hematol 2015; 90:82.
  104. Craiglow BG, Tavares D, King BA. Topical Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Alopecia Universalis. JAMA Dermatol 2016; 152:490.
  105. Lattouf C, Jimenez JJ, Tosti A, et al. Treatment of alopecia areata with simvastatin/ezetimibe. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 72:359.
  106. Ali A, Martin JM 4th. Hair growth in patients alopecia areata totalis after treatment with simvastatin and ezetimibe. J Drugs Dermatol 2010; 9:62.
  107. Robins DN. Case reports: alopecia universalis: hair growth following initiation of simvastatin and ezetimibe therapy. J Drugs Dermatol 2007; 6:946.
  108. Yoo KH, Kim MN, Kim BJ, Kim CW. Treatment of alopecia areata with fractional photothermolysis laser. Int J Dermatol 2010; 49:845.
  109. Cutrer FM, Pittelkow MR. Cephalalgic alopecia areata: a syndrome of neuralgiform head pain and hair loss responsive to botulinum A toxin injection. Cephalalgia 2006; 26:747.
  110. Cho HR, Lew BL, Lew H, Sim WY. Treatment effects of intradermal botulinum toxin type A injection on alopecia areata. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36 Suppl 4:2175.
  111. Tosti A, Pazzaglia M, Voudouris S, Tosti G. Hypertrichosis of the eyelashes caused by bimatoprost. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 51:S149.
  112. Herane MI, Urbina F. Acquired trichomegaly of the eyelashes and hypertrichosis induced by bimatoprost. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004; 18:644.
  113. Johnstone MA. Hypertrichosis and increased pigmentation of eyelashes and adjacent hair in the region of the ipsilateral eyelids of patients treated with unilateral topical latanoprost. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 124:544.
  114. Demitsu T, Manabe M, Harima N, et al. Hypertrichosis induced by latanoprost. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44:721.
  115. Roseborough I, Lee H, Chwalek J, et al. Lack of efficacy of topical latanoprost and bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions in promoting eyelash growth in patients with alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009; 60:705.
  116. Faghihi G, Andalib F, Asilian A. The efficacy of latanoprost in the treatment of alopecia areata of eyelashes and eyebrows. Eur J Dermatol 2009; 19:586.
  117. Ross EK, Bolduc C, Lui H, Shapiro J. Lack of efficacy of topical latanoprost in the treatment of eyebrow alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:1095.
  118. Coronel-Pérez IM, Rodríguez-Rey EM, Camacho-Martínez FM. Latanoprost in the treatment of eyelash alopecia in alopecia areata universalis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2010; 24:481.
  119. Rigopoulos D, Gregoriou S, Korfitis C, et al. Lack of response of alopecia areata to pimecrolimus cream. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007; 32:456.
  120. Price VH, Willey A, Chen BK. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52:138.
  121. Feldmann KA, Kunte C, Wollenberg A, Wolfe H. Is topical tacrolimus effective in alopecia areata universalis? Br J Dermatol 2002; 147:1031.
  122. Gilhar A, Pillar T, Etzioni A. Topical cyclosporin A in alopecia areata. Acta Derm Venereol 1989; 69:252.
  123. Mauduit G, Lenvers P, Barthélémy H, Thivolet J. [Treatment of severe alopecia areata with topical applications of cyclosporin A]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1987; 114:507.
  124. Lee JW, Yoo KH, Kim BJ, Kim MN. Photodynamic therapy with methyl 5-aminolevulinate acid combined with microneedle treatment in patients with extensive alopecia areata. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010; 35:548.
  125. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, García-Morales I, et al. Failure to treat alopecia areata with photodynamic therapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2008; 33:585.
  126. Bissonnette R, Shapiro J, Zeng H, et al. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid does not induce hair regrowth in patients with extensive alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 2000; 143:1032.
  127. Harrison S, Sinclair R. Optimal management of hair loss (alopecia) in children. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003; 4:757.
  128. Madani S, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42:549.
  129. Hawit F, Silverberg NB. Alopecia areata in children. Cutis 2008; 82:104.
  130. Alabdulkareem AS, Abahussein AA, Okoro A. Severe alopecia areata treated with systemic corticosteroids. Int J Dermatol 1998; 37:622.
  131. Liakopoulou M, Alifieraki T, Katideniou A, et al. Children with alopecia areata: psychiatric symptomatology and life events. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36:678.
  132. Ghanizadeh A. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with alopecia areata in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinical sample. Int J Dermatol 2008; 47:1118.
  133. Aschenbeck KA, McFarland SL, Hordinsky MK, et al. Importance of Group Therapeutic Support for Family Members of Children with Alopecia Areata: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Pediatr Dermatol 2017; 34:427.