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Lower extremity positional deformations

Tiffany M McKee-Garrett, MD
Section Editors
Leonard E Weisman, MD
William Phillips, MD
Deputy Editor
Melanie S Kim, MD


Positional deformations are abnormalities that are mechanically produced by alterations of the normal fetal environment, which restrict fetal movement and/or cause significant fetal compression [1]. Deformations of the extremities occur frequently because fetal movement is required for normal musculoskeletal development.

Birth deformations can be divided into the following presentations:

Craniofacial abnormalities include scaphocephaly, plagiocephaly, mandibular asymmetry, flattened facies, deviated nasal septum, ear abnormalities, and craniosynostosis. (See "Overview of craniosynostosis", section on 'Categorization of cranial deformities'.)

Congenital torticollis. (See "Congenital muscular torticollis: Clinical features and diagnosis".)

Congenital scoliosis.

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Aug 19, 2016.
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