Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2018 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Interactive diabetes case 16: A 61-year-old man with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on two oral agents

Lloyd Axelrod, MD
Section Editor
David M Nathan, MD
Deputy Editor
Jean E Mulder, MD


A 61-year-old restaurant manager with type 2 diabetes returns for a routine office visit. Diabetes was discovered nine years ago on routine examination by his previous clinician when a random blood glucose was 193 mg/dL (10.7 mmol/L). The glycated hemoglobin (A1C) was 8.6 percent. The patient was treated initially with glipizide 5 mg every morning before breakfast.

Over the next two years, the dose of glipizide was increased incrementally to a dose of 10 mg twice daily before breakfast and supper. The blood glucose values improved and the A1C fell to the 7.3 to 7.8 percent range, the level depending, for the most part, on dietary adherence.

Three years ago, the A1C level rose to 8.4 percent and metformin was added. The initial dose of 500 mg twice a day with meals was increased rapidly to 1000 mg twice a day. The A1C fell to the 7.2 to 7.7 percent range.

You saw the patient for the first time one year ago. The A1C was 7.8 percent, and you suggested the need for additional medication to reduce the A1C value to <7.0 percent. The patient was reluctant to take another medication and said he would improve his diet. There is a buffet in the restaurant where he worked. Although he was eating three modest meals a day, he was nibbling constantly from approximately 4 PM until after midnight on crackers, peanuts, sausage, and cheese. He promised to limit himself to a modest snack at the end of each evening. The patient did not return during the intervening year but does so now because his blood glucose values have been rising despite his "improved" diet.

At the present time, the patient reports that he is no longer working in the restaurant and is following his diet. Breakfast is now two slices of whole grain bread and cappuccino. Lunch is a steak and a salad. Supper is often veal parmesan and a salad. He is no longer nibbling in the evening but does have a bedtime snack. He is pleased with his improved diet, notes that it has been a difficult transition, and is unwilling to make further changes.

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:

Subscribers log in here

Literature review current through: Dec 2017. | This topic last updated: Nov 17, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2018 UpToDate, Inc.
Topic Outline