Initiation of breastfeeding
- Richard J Schanler, MD
Richard J Schanler, MD
- Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine
- Debra C Potak, RN, BSN, IBCLC
Debra C Potak, RN, BSN, IBCLC
- Lactation Consultant
- Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York at North Shore
- Section Editors
- Steven A Abrams, MD
Steven A Abrams, MD
- Section Editor — Neonatology
- Professor, Department of Pediatrics
- Dell Medical School at the University of Texas at Austin
- Teresa K Duryea, MD
Teresa K Duryea, MD
- Section Editor — General Pediatrics
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Human milk is recognized as the optimal feeding for all infants because of its proven health benefits to infants and their mothers. The World Health organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the United States Preventive Services Task Force all recommend breastfeeding for the first six months of life [1-4]. (See "Infant benefits of breastfeeding" and "Maternal and economic benefits of breastfeeding".)
In the United States, the Goals for Healthy People 2020 include the initiation of breastfeeding in 82 percent of newborns, and any continued breastfeeding in 61 percent of six month old infants . Successful achievement of these goals is dependent upon health care professionals providing antenatal and postnatal breastfeeding education and support. In particular, the delivery and hospital experience should promote and support initiation of breastfeeding to enhance the probability of successful breastfeeding. As the leader of the health care team, the pediatrician should advocate for breastfeeding, convey its importance as a health care issue and not a lifestyle choice, and be comfortable with directing its assessment and management [3,6].
The initiation of breastfeeding during the birth hospitalization will be reviewed here. Other aspects of breastfeeding are discussed in the following topics:
Subscribers log in hereLiterature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Aug 28, 2017.References
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- Flaherman VJ, Aby J, Burgos AE, et al. Effect of early limited formula on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in at-risk infants: an RCT. Pediatrics 2013; 131:1059.
- Furman L. Early limited formula is not ready for prime time. Pediatrics 2013; 131:1182.
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- Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ. Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; :CD007202.
- Kair LR, Kenron D, Etheredge K, et al. Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2013; 131:e1101.
- HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT
- DELIVERY ROOM
- Cesarean delivery
- OVERVIEW OF POSTPARTUM CARE
- MECHANICS OF FEEDING
- - Ankyloglossia
- - Inverted nipples
- Milk transfer
- DEMAND FEEDING
- Parental expectations
- Nursing frequency
- - Feeding cues
- - Signs of satiety
- ASSESSMENT OF INTAKE
- Frequency and duration of feeding
- Weight loss
- - Excessive weight loss
- - Prevention of excessive weight loss
- Urine output
- - Green frothy stools
- VITAMIN D
- PACIFIER USE
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS