Immunotherapy of advanced melanoma with immune checkpoint inhibition
- Jeffrey A Sosman, MD
Jeffrey A Sosman, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern
Although the incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing, most cases are diagnosed at an early stage. In that setting, surgical excision is curative in most cases, and patients at high-risk of developing metastatic disease may benefit from adjuvant immunotherapy. (See "Initial surgical management of melanoma of the skin and unusual sites" and "Adjuvant immunotherapy for melanoma".)
The management of patients with disseminated disease is a difficult problem, although recent advances have led to important improvements in patient outcomes. These approaches include immunotherapy (particularly with checkpoint inhibition) and targeted therapy that inhibits the MAP kinase pathway.
This topic reviews the efficacy and role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of advanced melanoma (algorithm 1). The toxicity associated with these agents is discussed separately, as is an overview of the management of advanced melanoma is presented separately. (See "Toxicities associated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy" and "Overview of the management of advanced cutaneous melanoma".)
Activation of cellular immunity begins when T cells recognize peptide fragments of intracellular proteins that are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) bound to specific mixed histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This interaction requires the presence of a costimulatory molecule (B7) and this activation results in upregulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). The CTLA-4 receptor on T lymphocytes is a negative regulator of T cell activation that outcompetes CD28 for binding to B7 on antigen presenting cells. CTLA-4 thereby serves as a physiologic "brake" on the activated immune system. (See "Principles of cancer immunotherapy".)
A second co-inhibitory pathway uses the programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1), which is another inhibitory receptor present on activated T cells. When PD-1 binds to its ligand (PD-L1) (often present on tumor cells), the ability of the activated T cell to produce an effective immune response is down-modulated. Antibodies directed against PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) or the PD-1 ligand thus may restore or augment an antitumor immune response and produce tumor responses in patients with advanced melanoma. (See 'Programmed death 1 protein' below.)
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- RESPONSE TO CHECKPOINT INHIBITION
- Patterns of response
- Immune-related response criteria
- PROGRAMMED DEATH 1 PROTEIN
- Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies
- - Pembrolizumab
- - Nivolumab
- - Adjuvant therapy
- - Toxicity
- Other antibodies
- - Atezolizumab
- - Dose and schedule
- - Adjuvant therapy
- ANTI-PD-1 VERSUS ANTI-CTLA-4 ANTIBODIES
- COMBINED ANTI-CTLA-4 AND ANTI-PD-1 IMMUNOTHERAPY
- Ipilimumab plus nivolumab
- Ipilimumab plus pembrolizumab
- Sequential therapy
- GM-CSF combinations
- BRAIN METASTASES
- NON-CUTANEOUS MELANOMA
- OTHER IMMUNE REGULATORY CHECKPOINTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS