Immunologic transfusion reactions
- Arthur J Silvergleid, MD
Arthur J Silvergleid, MD
- Section Editor — Transfusion Medicine
- Affiliate Associate Professor, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology
- University of South Florida, College of Medicine
- Medical Director, OneBlood, Inc.
Transfusions can be lifesaving for patients with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, or deficiency of plasma components. However, allogenic blood cells and plasma proteins are foreign substances that can elicit an immune response in transfusion recipients, and plasma contains antibodies and other immune mediators that can react with recipient cells. As a result, transfusion carries risks of immunologic reactions.
This topic review discusses common immunologic transfusion reactions. Other types of transfusion reactions, and the approach to the patient with a suspected transfusion reaction for which the cause is unknown, are discussed in separate topic reviews.
●Transfusion reaction of unknown cause – (See "Approach to the patient with a suspected acute transfusion reaction".)
●Hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) – (See "Hemolytic transfusion reactions".)
●Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) – (See "Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)".)
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- DISTINGUISHING AMONG IMMUNOLOGIC REACTIONS
- FEBRILE NONHEMOLYTIC REACTIONS
- Prevalence of FNHTR
- Mechanism of FNHTR
- Clinical presentation and diagnosis of FNHTR
- Management of FNHTR
- Prevention of FNHTR
- ANAPHYLACTIC TRANSFUSION REACTIONS
- Prevalence and mechanisms of anaphylactic reactions
- Clinical presentation and diagnosis of anaphylactic reactions
- Treatment and prevention of anaphylactic reactions
- URTICARIAL (ALLERGIC) REACTIONS
- Prevalence and mechanisms of urticarial reactions
- Clinical presentation and diagnosis of urticarial reactions
- Management and prevention of urticarial reactions
- HEMOLYTIC TRANSFUSION REACTIONS
- POST-TRANSFUSION PURPURA
- Prevalence and mechanisms of post-transfusion purpura
- Clinical presentation and diagnosis of post-transfusion purpura
- Treatment and prevention of PTP
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS