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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 20

of 'Idiopathic edema'

20
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis associated with long-term furosemide abuse in adults.
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Kim YG, Kim B, Kim MK, Chung SJ, Han HJ, Ryu JA, Lee YH, Lee KB, Lee JY, Huh W, Oh HY
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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16(12):2303.
 
BACKGROUND: The use of furosemide is well recognized as a predisposing factor of nephrocalcinosis in infants. Although furosemide is widely used for various medical conditions in adults, its association with nephrocalcinosis in adults is not well established.
METHODS: We studied 18 consecutive adult patients (male:female ratio 1:17, age range 21-59 years) who habitually took furosemide to control weight or oedema for long periods of time (range 3-25 years). The daily dose of continuous intake of furosemide ranged from 40 to 2800 mg. Nephrocalcinosis was evaluated using renal ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), or kidney biopsies.
RESULTS: Renal US and CT revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis of the medullary pyramids in 15 (83.3%) out of 18 patients. The duration of furosemide abuse was similar between nephrocalcinosis positive (NC(+)) and nephrocalcinosis negative (NC(-)) groups. The daily dose of furosemide was nearly 10 times higher in the NC(+) group (range 120-2800 mg, mean 538 mg) than the NC(-) group (range 40-80 mg, mean 67 mg). All patients showed variable degrees ofrenal insufficiency and there was no difference in creatinine clearance between the NC(+) and NC(-) groups (P>0.05). Kidney biopsies performed in three patients showed focal tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and atrophy and calcifications were observed in outer medullary tubulo-interstitium.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term furosemide abuse can cause medullary nephrocalcinosis in adults, and the risk of developing of nephrocalcinosis seems to be correlated with the daily dose of furosemide. We suggest that long-term furosemide abuse should be suspected in adult patients when medullary nephrocalcinosis is incidentally detected by US or CT.
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Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sunkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
PMID