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Hypospadias: Management and outcome

Laurence S Baskin, MD, FAAP
Section Editor
Duncan Wilcox, MD
Deputy Editor
Melanie S Kim, MD


Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the male urethra that results in abnormal ventral placement of the urethral opening. The location of the displaced urethral meatus may range anywhere within the glans, the shaft of penis, the scrotum, or perineum (picture 1).

The management and outcome of hypospadias will be reviewed here. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and evaluation of hypospadias are discussed separately. (See "Hypospadias: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and evaluation".)


Surgical correction for hypospadias is an elective procedure. The clinician's role is to provide information regarding the balance of potential benefits and complications to the family. For infants with mild defects (forme fruste or incomplete or partial presence of hypospadias) with a normally functional penis in respect to voiding and future sexual function, surgical correction is not warranted. However, correction may be entertained for cosmetic reasons based on family preference, as some families may want to correct any asymmetric foreskin defect for religious (circumcision) or social reasons.

Urologic referral — The need for urologic referral is based on the severity of the hypospadias and family preference (table 1).

Urologic referral and correction are reserved for those patients in whom there is a potential functional issue including:

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Sep 20, 2017.
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