Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 10

of 'Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis'

Muscle Na+ channelopathies: MRI detects intracellular 23Na accumulation during episodic weakness.
Weber MA, Nielles-Vallespin S, Essig M, Jurkat-Rott K, Kauczor HU, Lehmann-Horn F
Neurology. 2006;67(7):1151. Epub 2006 Aug 23.
BACKGROUND: Muscle channelopathies such as paramyotonia, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and potassium-aggravated myotonia are caused by gain-of-function Na+ channel mutations.
METHODS: Methods: Implementation of a three-dimensional radial 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) sequence with ultra-short echo times allowed the authors to quantify changes in the total muscular 23Na signal intensity. By this technique and T2-weighted 1H MRI, the authors studied whether the affected muscles take up Na+ and water during episodes of myotonic stiffness or of cold- or exercise-induced weakness.
RESULTS: A 22% increase in the 23Na signal intensity and edema-like changes on T2-weighted 1H MR images were associated with cold-induced weakness in all 10 paramyotonia patients; signal increase and weakness disappeared within 1 day. A 10% increase in 23Na, but no increase in the T2-weighted 1H signal, occurred during cold- or exercise-induced weakness in seven hyperkalemic periodic paralysis patients, and no MR changes were observed in controls or exercise-induced stiffness in six potassium-aggravated myotonia patients. Measurements on native muscle fibers revealed provocation-induced, intracellular Na+ accumulation and membrane depolarization by -41 mV for paramyotonia, by -30 mV for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and by -20 mV for potassium-aggravated myotonia. The combined in vivo and in vitro approach showed a close correlation between the increase in 23Na MR signal intensity and the membrane depolarization (r = 0.92).
CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the total 23Na signal intensity reflects intracellular changes, the cold-induced Na+ shifts are greatest and osmotically relevant in paramyotonia patients, and even osmotically irrelevant Na+ shifts can be detected by the implemented 23Na MR technique.
Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.