Hydrocephalus in children: Management and prognosis
- Abilash Haridas, MD
Abilash Haridas, MD
- Pediatric & Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery, Children’s Hospital of Michigan
- Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University
- Tadanori Tomita, MD
Tadanori Tomita, MD
- Yeager Professor and Division Head of Pediatric Neurosurgery,
- Director, Falk Brain Tumor Center
- Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago;
- Professor and Vice-Chair, Department of Neurosurgery,
- Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Hydrocephalus is a disorder in which an excessive amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates within the cerebral ventricles and/or subarachnoid spaces, resulting in ventricular dilation and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) [1,2].
The management and prognosis of hydrocephalus in children will be reviewed here. The pathophysiology, etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of hydrocephalus are discussed separately. (See "Hydrocephalus in children: Physiology, pathogenesis, and etiology" and "Hydrocephalus in children: Clinical features and diagnosis".)
This topic will focus on the management and prognosis of obstructive and communicating hydrocephalus, which are almost always associated with increased ICP. Normal pressure hydrocephalus, a condition seen predominantly in adults in which the cerebral ventricles are pathologically enlarged, but the ICP is not elevated, is discussed separately. (See "Normal pressure hydrocephalus".)
The prevention and initial management of hydrocephalus associated with intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates is also discussed in greater detail separately. (See "Management and complications of intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn".)
The following terms are used this topic:
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- Management approach
- - Acute rapidly progressive hydrocephalus
- - Symptomatic and high-risk patients
- - Asymptomatic and low-risk patients
- CSF diversion procedures
- - Choice of procedure
- - CSF Shunt
- - Endoscopic third ventriculostomy
- - ETV with choroid plexus cauterization
- SHUNT MALFUNCTION
- Functional outcome
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS