Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-3
of 'Patient education: Heart transplantation (Beyond the Basics)'
Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: twenty-fourth official adult heart transplant report--2007.
Taylor DO, Edwards LB, Boucek MM, Trulock EP, Aurora P, Christie J, Dobbels F, Rahmel AO, Keck BM, Hertz MI
J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(8):769.
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Addison, Texas, USA. email@example.com<firstname.lastname@example.org>
Guidelines for the referral and management of patients eligible for solid organ transplantation.
Steinman TI, Becker BN, Frost AE, Olthoff KM, Smart FW, Suki WN, Wilkinson AH, Clinical Practice Committee, American Society of Transplantation
Members of the Clinical Practice Committee, American Society of Transplantation, have attempted to define referral criteria for solid organ transplantation. Work done by the Clinical Practice Committee does not represent the official position of the American Society of Transplantation. Recipients for solid organ transplantation are growing in numbers, progressively outstripping the availability of organ donors. As there may be discrepancies in referral practice and, therefore, inequity may exist in terms of access to transplantation, there needs to be uniformity about who should be referred to transplant centers so the system is fair for all patients. A review of the literature that is both generic and organ specific has been conducted so referring physicians can understand the criteria that make the patient a suitable potential transplant candidate. The psychosocial milieu that needs to be addressed is part of the transplant evaluation. Early intervention and evaluation appear to play a positive role in maximizing quality of life for the transplant recipient. There is evidence, especially in nephrology, that the majority of patients with progressive failure are referred to transplant centers at a late stage of disease. Evidence-based medicine forms the basis for medical decision-making about accepting the patient as a transplant candidate. The exact criteria for each organ are detailed. These guidelines reflect consensus opinions, synthesized by the authors after extensive literature review and reflecting the experience at their major transplant centers. These guidelines can be distributed by transplant centers to referring physicians, to aid them in understanding who is potentially an acceptable candidate for transplantation. The more familiar physicians are with the exact criteria for specific organ transplantation, the more likely they are to refer patients at an appropriate stage. Individual transplant centers will make final decisions on acceptability for transplantation based on specific patient factors. It is hoped that this overview will assist insurers/payors in reimbursing transplant centers for solid organ transplantation, based on criteria for acceptability by the transplant community. The selection and management of patients with end-stage organ failure are constantly changing, and future advances may make obsolete some of the criteria mentioned in the guidelines. Most importantly, these are intended to be guidelines, not rules.
Dialysis Unit, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. email@example.com
The results of cardiac retransplantation: an analysis of the Joint International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/United Network for Organ Sharing Thoracic Registry.
Srivastava R, Keck BM, Bennett LE, Hosenpud JD
BACKGROUND: It is well established that repeat heart transplantation has a significantly worse outcome when compared with primary (first time) transplantation. Defining the risk factors for mortality within this group has been difficult due to small numbers of patients at individual centers.
METHODS: All cardiac retransplants performed in the United States and registered in the Joint International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Thoracic Registry were analyzed for demographics, morbidity posttransplantation, immunosuppression, and risk factors for mortality.
RESULTS: The study cohort included 514 patients of which 81% were male with a mean age of 47+/-12 years. Time from primary transplant to retransplantation ranged from 1 day to 15.5 years and more than 50% of the patients underwent retransplantation for chronic rejection. More than 60% of patients were in the intensive care unit at the time of retransplantation and more than 40% of the patients were reported to be on some form of life support (ventricular assist device, ventilator, and/or inotropic therapy). Survival for the entire retransplant cohort was 65, 59, and 55% for 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, but was substantially lower when the intertransplant interval was short. Conversely, when the interval between primary and retransplantation was more than 2 years, 1 year survival postretransplantation approached that of primary transplantation. Additional independent risk factors for mortality for the retransplant cohort included overall cardiac transplant center volume, the use of a ventricular assist device or ventilator, the patient being in the intensive care unit, and recipient age. The four most common causes of death were infection, primary/nonspecific graft failure, chronic rejection (allograft vasculopathy), and acute rejection.
CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm that repeat heart transplantation is a higher risk procedure than primary transplantation, especially early after the primary heart transplant.
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53215, USA.